Even though we are a young nation, Singapore, like any other countries, has its fare share of legends and myths. Most Singaporeans are aware of the popular folktale of how the name Singapura came about, but what about the other lesser-known legends of Singapore, such as the Merlion, Redhill or Radin Mas?
Let’s find out more…
Sang Nila Utama, or Sri Tri Buana, was once the ruler of the Srivijaya Empire at Sumatra. According to legends, he went on an expedition in the late 13th century, and discovered an island with white sandy shore. After learning that the place was called Temasik (Temasek), Sang Nila Utama decided to cross the waters to reach this newly discovered land.
However, a storm appeared out of nowhere and nearly capsized the boat. In a desperate attempt, Sang Nila Utama threw his crown into the turbulent waters. The weather and the sea immediately became calm, and the crew reached Teluk Belanga (present-day Telok Blangah) safely. As they landed, a strange beast was spotted from afar. Upon hearing that it was a lion, an auspicious symbol, Sang Nila Utama was overjoyed and decided to name the island Singapura, or Lion City.
The discovery was said to have happened in around AD1297, and Sang Nila Utama went on to rule Singapura for 48 years before his death. His palace and burial ground was located on top of Bukit Larangan, or Forbidden Hill (present-day Fort Canning Hill).
2. Pulau Ubin
How did the island of Pulau Ubin form in the first place?
A legendary tale explains that in the early days, an elephant, a pig and a frog challenged one another to reach the Johor shores from mainland Singapore. The stakes were high, as those who did not succeed would be turned into rock. The frog, being the first to try, failed to cross the straits and was turned into Pulau Sekudu. Pulau Sekudu literally means Frog Island in Malay.
The elephant and the pig were the next to attempt the feat. They did not make it too, thus both of them fused together to become the main island of Pulau Ubin.
3. Pulau Blakang Mati
The former name of Sentosa was Pulau Blakang Mati, where Blakang Mati means “behind the dead” in Malay.
No one knows exactly how the name of the island came about, but there were many legends about its origin. According to one version, the island was once a place of piracy and bloodshed in the past. The victims of the murders haunted the island so much that it was given this not-so-auspicious name. Another account was that the island was located “behind” Pulau Brani, which was the burial ground of many ancient Malay warriors.
Nevertheless, Pulau Blakang Mati was renamed as Sentosa (which means “isle of tranquility”) in 1972. With the island becoming a favourite beach resort among Singaporeans and the tourists, the unhappy legends were soon forgotten.
4. Kusu Island
It is said that in the early 19th century, two holy men went to Kusu Island on a pilgrimage trip. A bond of friendship was forged between the Arab Dato Syed Rahman and the Chinese Yam during their stay on the island. However, Yam became ill one day, and they were running out of their food supplies. Syed Rahman did not abandon his friend and instead stayed and prayed for his recovery.
Miraculously, a boat containing food and water appeared by the shore, and Yam recovered from his illness. The grateful pair returned to Kusu regularly as a gesture of gratitude.
Another version was that a giant tortoise miraculously appeared to save a group of Chinese and Malay fishermen, who were on the verge of drowning after their fishing boats sank in the stormy weather. The tortoise turned itself into an island so that the fishermen could climb ashore. In order to remember their gratitude to the holy tortoise, the fishermen built a Chinese temple and a Malay shrine on the island.
5. Sisters’ Islands
Lying south of Sentosa, Sisters’ Islands refer to Pulau Subar Darat and Pulau Subar Laut.
Many years ago, there was a pair of sisters Minah and Linah living by the southern coast of Singapore. Being very attached to each other, the sisters vowed to marry two brothers so that they could live together always. However, fate could be cruel sometimes, as one night Linah ran into a group of pirates by the sea.
Stunned by her beauty, the pirate chief was determined to marry Linah. When the dawn broke, the pirates came and abducted Linah to their ships. Weeping over the loss of her dear sister, Minah came swimming after the boats. The stormy waters were merciless, and she was drowned eventually. In a desperate attempt, Linah broke free and dived into the sea.
The next day, a pair of islands appeared at where the sisters had drowned. They were named Sisters’ Island by the villagers in memory of the two ill-fated girls.
6. Redhill and Tanjong Pagar
A long time ago, the southern coast of Singapore was infested by numerous fierce swordfish. The villagers and fishermen could not ply their trades at the sea, as they would be attacked by these fearsome creatures if they ever ventured near the waters. The people requested help from the Sultan, but even him and his royal army could not do anything about it.
A little boy then proposed a solution to the Sultan. Build a row of barricade made of banana tree trunks along the affected coast, he said. When the swordfish tried to attack the villagers again, their pointed beaks would pierce through the barricade and would be trapped immediately.
The plan worked perfectly, and the smart boy became popular among the villagers as their saviour. This invited jealousy from the Sultan. Fearing his rule would be threatened in the future, he sent his soldiers to kill the boy who lived on top of a hill. As the poor boy died, his blood flew down the hill, soaking the whole hill red. This was how Redhill, or Bukit Merah (literally means hill red), got its name.
In turn, the place where the barricade of banana tree trunks were set up became known as Tanjong Pagar, or “cape of stakes”.
7. Radin Mas
Radin Mas is the name referred to the area lying between Telok Blangah, Bukit Purmei and Jalan Bukit Merah.
According to legend, the place was named after a Javanese princess called Radin Mas Ayu, which means a sweet golden princess. Her father was a warrior prince named Pangeran Adipati Agung, who married a commoner, her mother, despite objection from the Sultan. During an expedition by Pangeran, the Sultan sent his men to burn their house down, killing Radin Mas Ayu’s mother. Radin Mas Ayu was saved by a loyal servant.
Upon his return, Pangeran was devastated. He decided to flee the Javanese kingdom with his infant daughter Radin Mas Ayu, and managed to arrive at Telok Blangah of Temasek (Singapore). Delighted with his arrival, the Sultan of Temasek arranged the marriage of his daughter to Pangeran. However, Radin Mas Ayu was not well-liked by her new stepmother.
When she grew up, Radin Mas Ayu had a marriage proposal from her stepmother’s nephew Tun Bagus. She refused but Tun Bagus threatened to kill Pangeran. In an attempt to shield her father from the attack, Radin Mas Ayu was stabbed in the heart by Tun Bagus. She was said to be buried at the foot of Mount Faber, and a shrine was erected in respect of her filial piety.
The few landmarks that still bear the name are Radin Mas Flyover, Radin Mas Primary School and Radin Mas Community Centre. Kampong Radin Mas was demolished in the eighties and Masjid Radin Mas (Mosque) was torn down in 2001.
The legend about Selegie Road is that it was the location of many great battles that took place in ancient Singapore. When Temasek fell in 1377, the last ruler of the kingdom was believed to have fled via this road, still a dirt track then, to Seletar. He escaped by the waters at the coast of Seletar and never managed to launch a comeback in a bid to reclaim his territories.
In the later years, a Bugis pirate tribe known as Orang Selegie was said to have occupy the area around Selegie, where they made Mount Sophia their home. The name Selegie may mean a Malay word that refers to a sharpened and hardened wooden spear.
One night, the villagers living by the southern coast of Temasek were awakened by the howling winds and the crashing waves. The dark clouds blocked out the lights of the moon and the stars, turning the world in complete darkness. It was as though the island of Temasek would be engulfed by the raging sea. The terrified villagers sank on their knees in prayers.
During this moment, a bright light was observed emerging from the southern waters. A massive creature, half lion and half fish, roared in anger. The battle between the fierce mystical animal and nature was intense, as the sky was filled with flashing lightnings. The villagers had never witnessed such terrifying phenomenons before.
After some time, the winds began to die down, the waves subsided and the sky started to clear. The gigantic sea beast had won the battle against the nature. As it claimed its victory, it stood proudly on Mount Imbiah of Pulau Belakang Mati (Sentosa). By morning, the merlion had retreated into its waters, leaving behind a bright colourful trail.
10. Badang and the Singapore Stone
According to local Malay folklore, Badang began as a poor fisherman who plied his trade at mouth of the Singapore River. One day he caught a genie in his fishing net, and in return of his release, the genie granted Badang’s wish to be the strongest man alive.
Impressed with Badang’s enormous strength, the Rajah of Singapura appointed him as the imperial warrior. Soon, other kingdoms heard of Badang’s fame and sent their warriors to challenge him. The king of India, in particular, sent his kingdom’s strongest man Wadi Bijaya to Singapura for a duel. In the last contest, Badang beat Wadi Bijaya by lifting a huge rock and throwing it towards the Singapore River.
Ancient inscriptions were added to the rock, probably to commemorate Badang’s achievements but centuries later in 1843, the British colonial government blasted it to pieces. Known as the Singapore Stone, only a fragment remains, and is now kept in the Singapore History Museum.
Note: The legends and myths of Singapore are not to be mixed up with Top 10 Most Popular Singapore’s Urban Legends.
Published: 29 June 2012
Updated: 05 December 2012
hmm wat about Tekong?
Somehow, there are not many established legends about Pulau Tekong
In fact, the name Tekong itself is subjected to several variations
My mum and her family grew up in Pulau Tekong. As a child, I had the chance to visit her old kampung house in early 1980s before govt decided to demolished it to make way for (that time) future SAF BMT training. What a memory.
I just discovered your Blog and it is amazing!!!! Keep up the good work !!
Reblogged this on SG Hard Truth.
So which year did the merlions become extinct? Just kidding!
Very interesting lah, from a new Singaporean who needs to be educated in such legends.
I think the Merlion was invented by STPB (Singapore tourist promtion board) in the 60’s.
Yep, its legend was fabricated in 1964 by STPB…
Thanks for the memories! I recall all those old stories now until I read the last paragraph. Why does the British always have to destroy other country´s history?
have to protest the inclusion of the Merlion here. It’s more of a backstory to the STPB logo than an actual legend unlike the others in the list. Otherwise, 9/10 ain’t bad! 🙂
Haha… Well, all the legends were more or less fabricated, just that the Merlion legend was fabricated only 40+ years ago 😛
Not true. The story of the how Redhill got its name and Radin Mas Ayu is true. The princess today is buried in Telok Blangah.
just came across your blog (hopefully not consider too late) and i really like it. it brings me so much memories, continue to post, will check it out often 🙂
Thanks Hui and I think the Remember Singapore site is a great store of history and a very valuable resource
Hello! Really curious here, where did you get the info about the naming of Pulau Blakang Mati? I’m researching on the history of Sentosa now and would love to hear the various legends behind the island’s former name. Thanks!
The Island used to be a cemetary for the community living nearby that Island, like those from Pulau Brani. My dad used to live in Pulau Brani.
Reblogged this on Jentrified Citizen and commented:
Jentrified- Fascinating legends of our country that should be kept alive even if they are not taught in schools. We must try to keep our history alive. Do share with your friends and family.
“The Wisdom of the Boy from Red Hill” by local sculptor Chua Boon Kee, located at the Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay some years ago… Not sure where they have moved it now
Thank you for the informative and interesting write-up about the myths and legends of Singapore.
Just thought I would also share my LEGO brickfilm which tells the story of Sang Nila Utama. I made it recently in commemoration of Singapore’s 48th National Day.
Good effort! nice one 🙂
Wow! Thats very interesting! Thank you for doing this video and share it with everyone! :):)
The Straits Times
Published on Sep 06, 2013
Radin Mas: Legacy of a princess
Area is home to historical gems and trappings of modern life
By Audrey Tan And Rachel Au-yong
HER story has passed through generations as the namesake of Radin Mas.
Yet a humble little hut is all that is left to commemorate Javanese princess Radin Mas Ayu.
Nestled at the foot of Mount Faber, her tomb is easy to miss. Only a small sign hanging at the entrance of the shrine tells the story of the filial 16th-century princess who sacrificed her life for her father’s.
Even though she died in 1511, Radin Mas Ayu lives on in the constituency that bears her name.
“So many things in this neighbourhood are named after her – the primary school, community centre and the old Radin Mas kampung,” said unofficial caretaker Zainol Atan, 60. “Till today, she is still our princess, and we must respect her.”
The rich history of Radin Mas dates back to the 1800s. Spanning Redhill, Bukit Purmei and Tiong Bahru, it was once home to one of Singapore’s oldest kampungs.
Today, it is a predominantly residential area infused with modern structures like Henderson Waves and an enclave of hip cafes in Yong Siak Street.
But there are also hidden treasures which offer a window into Singapore’s past.
The black-and-white colonial bungalows along Mount Faber Road, for instance, have been gazetted as heritage buildings by the Urban Redevelopment Authority for their unique history and 1920s architecture.
True to its Malay-Muslim roots, Radin Mas is also the location of the Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim Mosque, which was built in 1890 and is managed by the Johor government.
Sitting on Telok Blangah Road, the mosque, with its whitewashed walls and green roofs, still attracts devotees from all over the island.
Building contractor Mohammed Hushim, 51, who lives in Bedok, said: “I like this mosque as it is less strict and we are allowed to rest in the prayer areas.”
But the mosque is not the only age-old religious landmark in the area. Just down the road from it, the Church of St Teresa has occupied its Kampong Bahru spot since 1929.
The gleaming white structure is the only building in Singapore with Romano-Byzantine architecture. Inspired by the Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Paris, the church is “a place where many Catholic couples want to get married”, said literacy intervention teacher Genevieve Liao, 24.
Former resident Lim Mei Ling, 48, has fond memories of another religious institution next to the Catholic church.
Tang Gek Beo, or the Eastern Hell Temple, has been around for over a century. It houses the rare Heartless Black and White Demons – hell guards said to escort souls for sentencing by the King of Hell.
Said Ms Lim, a senior buyer: “The high walls of Tang Gek Beo looked like a castle to us children then, and we would imagine what went on behind those walls.”
According to temple caretaker Guo Xiu Ru, 63, the temple has seen three to four generations of devotees.
The long-time resident of Radin Mas said: “Previously, the temple was surrounded by trees and kampungs, but they have all been replaced by HDB flats. Now, only buildings like this temple and the church are left.”
Slices of Radin Mas’ history were recently preserved in a book titled A Village Remembered: Kampong Radin Mas 1800s To 1973. It was launched by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong last Sunday.
The next chapter will see new facilities like Henderson Waves, Singapore’s highest pedestrian bridge at 36m, take centrestage. The bridge, which connects Mount Faber to Telok Blangah Hill, is popular among families and joggers.
It is also a favourite among young lovers.
Student Adele Tan, 23, said: “I can tell my mother that I’m going to Henderson Waves with my boyfriend, and she won’t raise her eyebrows as she would had I said Mount Faber (a hot spot for couples in parked cars).”
Financial planner Marilyn Quek, 30, who has been living in Radin Mas for 25 years, said the area has the perfect blend of old and new. “The modern facilities help the younger generations bond with their families and friends, while the old religious landmarks give them continuity with tradition,” she added.
It is a sentiment that Mr Zainol shares. “Places of heritage like the (Radin Mas) shrine should be preserved to keep our multicultural tradition,” he said.
“If not, Singapore would slowly lose her history.”
just to check anyone got KUSU island old picture regarding the turtle. the temple pond white fish swim on top of the turtle shell.
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Just a little something for everyone about the princess…
10th to 14th century: Singapore stone
This piece of red sandstone inscribed with the earliest writing found in Singapore was part of a 3m by 3m boulder located at the mouth of the Singapore River.
It is Tamil.. Please review
Thank you for compiling this! It’s very helpful for me as I homeschool my preschooler and try to share with her Singapore’s fables.
We’ve recently included this as part of our National Day activities: http://homeschoolcrafts.wordpress.com/2014/08/05/celebrating-national-day-singapore-legends-stars-moon-and-fireworks/
Singapore’s myths, legends depicted in latest stamp issue
01 Oct 2014
SINGAPORE: The Palembang prince that would coin the city-state’s name, and the swordfish attack that defined the Redhill and Bukit Merah area will be celebrated in SingPost’s upcoming Myths and Legends stamp issue.
In a press release on Wednesday (Oct 1), SingPost said the set of eight stamps depicting both legends will go on sale from this Friday, and will cost S$6.16 each.
It will feature Sang Nila Utama, who landed on Temasek after a storm and encountered the lion. Upon learning the identity of the animal, the Palembang prince named the island Singapura, or Lion City.
The legend of Redhill is also illustrated through the stamps. Raja Paduka Sri Maharaja is the villain in this tale, when he killed the boy who saved the villagers from a swordfish attack. The boy’s blood spilled out and soaked the hill, turning it red, and resulted in the name of the neighbourhood.
i love radan mus ayu.she so beutiful
Sang Nila Utama used to be taught in Schools, just like Radin Mas and Bukit Merah. Kids nowadays dont know about these stories because MOE decided to remove them from the syllabus. I feel that its important to know how Singapore changed her name from Temasek. According to MOE, Singapore was a lifeless fishing village before Raffles came. Which is untrue, because we had histories of great lineage of Royalties. Its really sad to think that a few generations later, all these stories will be forgotten. And also because of the land scarcity in Singapore, Sang Nila’s and Radin Mas’s tombs will be removed. Then, there will be no trace of the real origins of this Island.
Sang Nila Utama is an Indian King not a Malay..
The Cholan dynasty were ruling South East Asia during the 10 – 14th Century..
One famous Majestic Father Son duo were Raja Raja Cholan and Rajendran Cholan
The inscription on the Singapore stone is Tamil not Sanskrit or any language.
Please Do note Singa puram in Tamil translates to Lion City in English..
Please correct Singapore Historical Figures with right facts.
Sang Nila Utama is Malay. But he is a Hindu which is why his name sound Indian.
Singa Pura also mean Lion City in Malay language, which had been greatly influence by Sanskrit.
If the Singapore Stone is in Tamil, try reading it lah!
The earliest spelling variation of Singapura is found in Portuguese 1502 chart, spelled as Bargumgaparaa (later revised as Barxingapara). Bar is Arabic/Persian meaning Land, and can refer to a town, city, port, or kingdom. Bar can be also be found in Malabar and Zanzibar. Xin refers to Chinese, a root word which reformed to Cina. The “gapara” is a corrupted spelling of Javanese “Gapura” meaning Gate/Gateway. It derived from Gopura (Sanskrit: गोपुर). It literally means “Gateway Port to South China Sea”, and can also mean “Gateway to Land of the Chinese”.
Malays today refer it as Singgah Pura (stopover town/port). Portuguese called it Falsa Demora.
Through time, the word reformed into various translation such as Cincapula, Cingapura, Singapura, Singa Puram, ect. Singapore is anglicized of Singapura, much like Dan Ma Xi a sinicized of Javanese’s Temasek (referring to Singapore River).
The lion reference came from the Sulalat’us Salatin (an untranslated manuscript that brought The Malay Annals/Sejarah Melayu). Historians agreed upon that the lion sighting is a myth.
PS: The Singapore stone is in ancient Sanskrit. Why do we need historians capable of translating an inscription, if any Indian (with knowledge of reading Tamil) can read it? And like Wanaidi said, if the Singapore Stone is in Tamil, try reading it lah!
SingPost issues stamp set depicting folktales from Sisters’ Islands, Kusu Island
23 May 2016
The Straits Times
Singapore Post (SingPost) has teamed up with the National Heritage Board (NHB) to come up with a stamp set, called Myths and Legends, that depicts folklore from Singapore’s Southern islands.
The stamps, which will be released on Wednesday (May 25), feature two popular folktales from Sisters’ Islands and Kusu Island. Each set of stamps comes in four denominations: 1st local, 2nd local, 50 cents and $2.
SingPost’s last Myths and Legends stamp issue, which centred on the local tales of “Attack of the Swordfish” and “Sang Nila Utama”, was in October 2014.
The Sisters’ Island tale revolves around two inseparable sisters who drowned themselves in the sea rather than be apart, and reveals the origins behind the islands’ name. Kusu Island, meanwhile, was named after a giant turtle that rescued two fishermen caught in ferocious storms. It brought them on its back to the island, which became their home.
SingPost has also collaborated with NHB and the Singapore Philatelic Bureau to organise a public exhibition at its Next Generation Post Office at Suntec City from May 25 to June 8.
Titled “Tales from our Shores”, the exhibition will present stories about the Sisters’ Islands and Kusu Island. It will be open from 11am to 7pm daily.
Stamp collectors who buy the new stamps on Wednesday at the Suntec Post Office can collect a special edition cachet from Singapore Philatelic Bureau staff, who will be stationed there from 11am to 5pm.
There is also a pre-cancelled first day cover, priced at $8.20, that comes with the complete set of stamps. The stamps can also be purchased at all post offices and the Singapore Philatelic Museum, as well as online at http://www.stampdelight.com.
Lovely collection of legends!
I really love this website because it really helped me for my Social Studies. Now, I know exactly what website to go to for cultural history 😜