Watching movies is one of Singaporeans’ favourite pastimes, along with dining and shopping. A nation of avid movie-goers, the locals have been going to cinemas for movies for more than a century! In 2009 alone, the cinema attendance was as high as 19 million.
One Century Ago
In 1902, the first public screening took place at a tent in an open space between River Valley Road and Hill Street. Two years later saw the opening of the first ever movie theatre in Singapore. It was the Paris Cinema at Victoria Street. Subsequently two other theatres also opened at North Bridge Road and Bidadari Road at about the same period.
By 1906, Beach Road had a theatre named “La France”. The famous Alhambra Theatre was built at the junction of Beach Road and Middle Road a year later. The concentration of theatres at Beach Road in the next few decades prompted the area to be dubbed as “the place of cinemas”.
The 20s And 30s
Two prominent cinemas were built at New Bridge Road of Chinatown in the late 1920s, namely the Oriental Theatre and the Majestic Theatre. Majestic Theatre started off as a Cantonese opera theatre, before being converted into a cinema in 1938.
The first golden period of cinemas in Singapore occurred in the 1930s, when more than nine cinemas sprung up from Dhoby Ghaut to Katong, including Cathay, Capitol, Marlborough, Palacegay, Pavilion, Roxy, Surina, Tivoli and Wembly.
The Japanese Occupation
During the Japanese Occupation, western films were banned and many large cinemas, such as Capitol, Oriental and Majestic, were occupied by the invading forces. Renamed in Japanese names, they were then used to screen Japanese propaganda flicks in an attempt to justify their invasion of Asia.
After the War
The movie industry thrived after the war. Established giants such as Shaw Organisation and Cathay Organisation expanded their cinema empires aggressively. They would be later joined by another prominent player in Eng Wah.
The Cinema Kings
Lim Chong Pang (1904-1956), surprisingly, was a notable contributor in the local movie industry. As a member of the Singapore Rural Board, he was aware of the importance of entertainment needs for the residents. When his father Lim Nee Soon passed away in 1936, Lim Chong Pang took over and managed a number of cinemas in Singapore. By then, he became well-known as the “cinema king” of Sembawang. Two of the most prominent theatres under him were Sultan Theatre and Garrick Theatre (later known as Galaxy Cinema).
In the 1920s, two Shanghainese brothers Runme Shaw (1901-1985) and Run Run Shaw (1907-2014) arrived at Singapore to carve out a career, establishing the Shaw Organisation (邵氏院线) in 1924. With the success of their first cinema, the Empire Theatre at Tanjong Pagar, the Shaw Brothers began expanding aggressively into Malaya.
From silent movies to Chinese and Malay films, the Shaw Brothers owned more than 100 cinemas in much of Southeast Asia by the end of 1930s. The Second World War put a stop to their movie empire but the Shaws were able to make a stronger comeback after that.
By 1965, Shaw Organisation had the widest cinema network in Singapore, with 19 cinema halls and another 30 that were licensed to play their distributed movies. The twenty years between the sixties and eighties represented another golden period in Shaw Organisation’s famous Chinese kungfu movies.
Loke Wan Tho (1915-1964) was the founder of Cathay Organisation (国泰院线). Born in Kuala Lumpur in 1915, Loke Wan Tho was the ninth son of Loke Yew, the richest man in Malaya during the early 1900s. Despite inheriting his father’s mines and plantations, Loke Wan Tho’s interest was in movies. In 1935, he established Associated Theatres Ltd, and started building cinemas in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.
At his peak, Loke Wan Tho’s company produced hundreds of Malay and Chinese movies, and owned cinema chains in Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. Loke Tho Wan was also credited for creating the golden era of Hong Kong movies from the fifties to sixties. In 1953, Associated Theatres Ltd was renamed as Cathay Organisation. Loke Wan Tho, however, died in a plane crash at Taiwan in 1964. He was only 49.
The founder of Eng Wah Organisation (荣华院线) Goh Eng Wah was born in 1923 at Muar, Malaysia. During the Second World War, he fled to Singapore. In 1945, at an age of only 21, Goh Eng Wah started a cinema with a friend at the Happy World Amusement Park. Called Victory Theatre, it screened many Japanese propaganda films. The success of his first venture encouraged him to acquire another cinema Happy Theatre soon after the war came to an end.
In 1968, Goh Eng Wah established Eng Wah Theatres Organisation Pte Ltd, bring countless Chinese movies from Hong Kong and Taiwan to the audience of Singapore. After the eighties, in an attempt to suit the taste of young Singaporeans, Eng Wah Organisation began to bring in films from Hollywood.
A much newer cinema operator compared to others, Golden Village (嘉华院线) came into prominence in May 1992 when they opened their first cinema Yishun 10, Asia’s first multiplex, at Northpoint Shopping Centre. Golden Village is a joint venture company between Australia’s Village Roadshow Limited and Hong Kong’s Orange Sky Golden Harvest, previously known as Golden Harvest. Golden Harvest, founded in 1970, was famous for its kungfu films starring Bruce Lee and Jackie Chan.
Then and Now
Over the years, the rising standards of movies also saw the increasing expectation of the cinemas by the movie-goers. The cinemas had gone from open air to air-conditioned; the films went from reels to digital to 3D. Even the habits of the movie-goers changed over time; they now prefer popcorn than kacang puteh.
Ushers would shone their torches onto the small paper tickets and directed the audience to their seats. Before the multiplex era, the screens were covered by curtains which would be then drawn partially during displays of advertisements and trailers. Only when the movies started would the curtains be drawn fully.
The local cinema industry had its golden era in the late seventies, but was hit by video piracy and recession in mid-eighties. The number slowly picked up again after the nineties, coincided with the comeback of Hong Kong films. Hollywood blockbusters, meanwhile, dominated the 2000s with their superior computer effects.
Vanished Cinemas and Theatres
The old cinemas each had their horrifying tales. Bug-infested seats, stained fabrics, dirty toilets or ghost stories were the common ones. But regardless of any era, the cinemas remained popular with the Singaporeans hungered for movie entertainment.
The list of Singapore’s old cinemas, most of them had already shut down, is arranged below in an alphabetical order. The newer cineplexes are not included.
Arcadia Cinema, East Coast Road (1920s)
Arcadia Cinema was one of the earliest cinemas in Singapore, opened by proprietor Wee Teow Beng. It was located at East Coast Road, showing English movies that were mainly catered to the upper class that lived around Tanjong Katong.
Alhambra Theatre, Beach Road (1907-1960s)
Opened in 1907 by motion picture industry pioneer Tan Cheng Kee at the junction of Beach Road and Middle Road, Alhambra Theatre (新娱乐戏院) was built near the sea, decades before the land reclamation that now stretches the coastline 500m away. The site was then known as hai kee or seaside, where one could hear the waves crashing against the walls of the cinema during high tides.
Alhambra Theatre was bought by the Shaw Brothers in the 1930s, and became Singapore’s first cinema that was fully air-conditioned. During the fifties, the cinema was renamed as New Alhambra. Its name was changed again to Gala Theatre after being taken over by Cathay Organisation which gave the building a series of renovations. Its previous glory was revived when the original Satay Club was set up near the building, attracting crowds from all parts of Singapore.
Alhambra and Marlborough Theatres would later be demolished and replaced by the Shaw Towers in 1970 (see Jade Theatre and Prince Theatre).
Ang Mo Kio Cinema, Ang Mo Kio Central (1980s)
Part of the group of four cinemas at Ang Mo Kio central, Ang Mo Kio Cinema (宏茂桥戏院) was the smallest of all as well as the earliest to cease its operation. After its closure in the mid-eighties, the building was converted in what is known as Big Mac Centre today.
Bedok Cinema, Bedok Town Centre (1980-2006)
Cathay Organisation-owned Bedok Cinema (北斗戏院), standing next to Changi Theatre at Bedok Town Centre, used to screen Chinese and English films in the eighties and early nineties. It was opened in February 1080, screening Hong Kong actor Richard Ng’s Murder Most Foul on its debut day. The cinema was converted into Bedok 1 and Bedok 2 in 1990, after which it was leased to Golden Village temporarily.
An independent operator took over the cinema in 1996, specialising in Hindi and Tamil movies, until its closure a decade later. Together with Shaw Brothers’ Changi Theatre, it was then torn down and a brand new Bedok Point now stands in its place.
There were once four old cinemas at Bedok Town Centre, namely Bedok, Changi, Liwagu and Princess/Rajah. All four of them had ceased their operations by the end of 2000s.
Broadway Cinema, Ang Mo Kio Central (1980s-late 1990s)
Broadway Cinema (百乐汇戏院) was strategically located beside the popular Ang Mo Kio Central hawker centre in the nineties. Equipped with two halls, it was operated by the Cathay Organisation, followed by a brief period by Golden Village.
The building was sold for $9 million in 2000, and is now called Broadway Plaza.
Cathay Cinema (Old), Handy Road (1936-2000)
Cathay Cinema (国泰戏院), with its Cathay Hotel, was Singapore’s first skyscraper and the tallest building in Southeast Asia when it had its grand opening in 1936. More than one thousand fans packed into the cinema, Singapore’s first fully air-conditioned cinema, to catch the premier of “The Four Feathers”.
Due to the Second World War, Cathay Cinema was closed in 1942 to become a Red Cross station, in order to deal with the increasing number of injuries and casualties.
The Japanese occupied the building of Cathay Cinema during the war, controlling its broadcasting facilities. The notorious Japanese soldiers would display the heads of their victims outside the building, stuck on poles, in a bid to crush the fighting spirit of the locals.
After the war, Cathay Cinema reopened with the first post-war movie “The Tunisian Victory”, but it was not until 1948 before the building was taken back by its rightful owner Cathay Organisation.
In the next few decades, Cathay Organisation expanded the building and added Cathay Restaurant, Cathay Hotel and Cathay Apartments. In 1990, Cathay opened Singapore’s first arthouse cinema, The Picturehouse, within its premises. The last curtains of Cathay Cinema fell in 2000 as the building was redeveloped into a three-cinema cineplex. It finally reopened in 2006 as The Cathay.
Capitol Theatre, Stamford Road (1929-1998)
The premier picture house in Singapore in the early days, the Neo-Classical styled Capitol Theatre (首都戏院) was built in 1929 and mainly catered for the English movie fans. The Japanese occupied the building during the Second World War, using it as a media for their propaganda. It was renamed as Kyo-Ei Gekijo as Japanese films were screened.
After the war, the Shaw Organisation bought the premises and it became known as the Shaw Building until 1989. The curtains to the almost 70 years of showbiz were finally brought down in 1998 when the last movie was screened at Capitol Theatre.
Both Capitol Theatre and Capitol Building were given conservation status in July 2007.
Central Cinema, Jalan Eunos (1950s-1970s)
A small cinema called Central Cinema once stood along Jalan Eunos between the fifties and seventies.
Changi Cinema, New Upper Changi Road (1940s-1970s)
Not to be confused with the Changi Theatre at Bedok in the eighties and nineties, the old Changi Cinema had a history that went back to the 1940s. Located at the 14-1/2 milestone of Changi Road, the ownership of the cinema changed hands several times.
Changi Theatre, Bedok Town Centre (early 1980s-2000)
One of the four cinemas at Bedok central, the three-screen Changi Theatre (樟宜戏院) used to stand beside Bedok Cinema, facing New Upper Changi Road.
Owned by the Shaw Organisation, Changi Theatre started off as a single screen cinema, before being converted into three halls. It was Singapore’s first “triplex”, built at a cost of $2.5 million and equipped a total of 1150 seats.
However, due to the space constraints, the halls were small and cramped. Towards the late nineties, Changi Theatre struggled and eventually closed in 2000 due to poor attendance.
In late 2000s, together with Bedok Cinema, its building was demolished and replaced by Bedok Point Shopping Mall.
Chinatown Cinema, New Bridge Road (1990s)
In November 1990, the Shaw Organisation launched two cinema halls 1 and 2 (唐城戏院) at Chinatown Point, at a cost of $2 million.
Ciros Cinema, Telok Blangah Road (1970s-early 1980s)
A small cinema along Telok Blangah Road that mainly showed Hindi movies, Shaw Organisation-owned Ciros Cinema (仙乐戏院) was leased to Christian Community Chapel in 1983. The building was later demolished and replaced by Grace Methodist Church since April 1998.
Clementi/Commonwealth Theatre, Clementi Town Centre (1980s)
Standing at an excellent location in front of Commonwealth Avenue West and Clementi MRT Station, Clementi/Commonwealth Theatre (金文泰/联邦戏院) had enjoyed good crowds during the eighties.
In the later part of the eighties, it faced competition from the nearby Eng Wah-owned Empress Cinema. After shutting down, the building became karaoke haven Party World, before converting again to a small shopping mall called CityVibe.
Dalit Theatre, Bukit Merah Town Centre (1981-late 1990s)
Dalit Theatre (达利戏院) and Regal Theatre were the only two cinemas at Bukit Merah central; both of them facing the busy Jalan Bukit Merah. While Regal Theatre screened mainly Chinese movies, Dalit specialised in Tamil films.
Dalit received its first Public Entertainment License in 1981. The building was revamped in 1998 to be used as a theatre for the non-profit charitable Christian organisation TOUCH Community Services.
Da Dong Ya Cinema, Upper Bukit Timah Road (1942-1946)
At the start of the Japanese Occupation (1942-1945), two Hokchia businessmen of surnames Yuan and Yan sought approval from the Japanese authorities to set up an amusement park at the seventh milestone of Upper Bukit Timah Road. The name chosen was, unfortunately, Da Dong Ya (大東亞) or Greater East Asia, after the Japanese’s propaganda claim of achieving a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (大東亞共栄圈).
The open air cinema at Da Dong Ya Amusement Park mainly screened Japanese propaganda flicks or old Chinese films. Locals living nearby and Japanese soldiers patronised the park with 20c banana currency as entry fees. After the war, the park’s popularity declined and was soon replaced by the construction of Beauty World Market in 1947.
Diamond Theatre, North Bridge Road (1947-1977)
Diamond Theatre was part of the five cinemas located at around North Bridge Road between the fifties and seventies; the other four being Royal, Capitol, Odeon and Jubilee.
Like Royal Theatre, Diamond Theatre specialised in Tamil Movies. It was a $250,000 joint venture between Indian jeweller Kassim Mohamed Oli Mohamed (died 1988) and Cathay Organisation’s founder Loke Wan Tho (1915-1964).
In the fifties, Diamond Theatre was plagued by fire hazards, which cost it hundreds of thousands in damages and restoration. Out-competed by other cinemas by the mid-seventies, Diamond Theatre finally ended its business in November 1977, after three decades. The land that it occupied was acquired by the government, and the building was demolished two years later for the building of Blanco Court Resettlement Centre.
East Shore Cinema, Stadium Walk (1990s)
Formerly known as Leisure-Drome (乐心宫戏院), East Shore Cinema (东滨戏院) was owned by Cathay Organisation in the nineties. After it upgraded to three halls (East Shore 1, 2 and 3), it received its first Public Entertainment License in 1994.
The premises is now known as Kallang Leisure Park.
Empire Theatre, Neil Road (1916-undetermined)
Opened in 1916 at the junction of Tanjong Pagar Road, South Bridge Road and Neil Road, the Empire Theatre was then a wooden cinema owned by proprietor T. S. Kung, who targeted the residents of Tanjong Pagar, Keppel Harbour and Pasir Panjang.
Able to accommodate 900 seated audience on wooden chair, the theatre mainly screened silent American films. On its opening night, T. S. Kung showed his generosity by donating the day income to British Red Cross Fund.
In 1926, the cinema was leased to the Shaw Brothers for a hefty $2,000 a month.
Empress Cinema, Clementi Town Centre (1980s-2010)
Owned by Eng Wah Organisation, Empress Cinema (华声戏院) had been a landmark at Clementi central for more than three decades. In 1993, the cinema was given a revamp, with the theatre being upgraded into three halls named Empress 1, 2 and 3.
It ceased its operation in 2010, and the building was demolished by mid-2012. The site is expected to be reborn as a brand new cinema after the complete makeover of Clementi Town Centre, scheduled in 2013.
Eng Wah Cinemas, various locations (1980s-Present)
In the eighties, Eng Wah Organisation had an open air cinema at Holland Village.
After the mid-nineties, Eng Wah Organisation started to venture aggressively into the new towns. It opened a branch of its cinemas at Paris Ris Central when White Sands Shopping Centre opened in 1996. However, due to the lack of human traffic at the relatively new town at the far eastern part of Singapore, the cinema was shut down at the end of the nineties.
The 1200-seat 6-screen Eng Wah cinema at Sun Plaza was the main source of entertainment for the residents of Sembawang when it was opened in 1998. It closed in 2009 after a decade of operation.
The Eng Wah cinemas at Suntec and West Mall (Bukit Batok), both opened in 1998, are still in operation.
Gala Cinema, Upper Bukit Timah Road (late 1970s-mid 1990s)
There was an old cinema called Gala Cinema (嘉宾戏院) at Bukit Timah Shopping Centre. Operated by Eng Wah Organisation, it screened a mixture of Tamil and Chinese movies, and was popular among the local residents and the Malaysian tourists during the eighties.
With the aging Bukit Timah Shopping Centre experiencing a significant drop in the human traffic, the cinema was forced to shut down in the mid-nineties.
Gala Theatre, Beach Road
See Alhambra Theatre.
Galaxy Cinema (formerly Apollo/Garrick Theatre), Onan Road (1930s-1980s)
Located at the junction of Geylang Road and Onan Road, Galaxy Cinema was part of the The Galaxy, a movie-cum-shopping centre that largely served the Muslim community at Joo Chiat. Other than Malay films, it also screened Chinese movies with English and Malay subtitles added.
Galaxy Cinema was formerly known as Apollo Theatre in the 1930s. It was taken charge by Lim Chong Pang, son of Lim Nee Soon, who renamed it as Garrick Theatre. Before the Second World War, Garrick Theatre was one of the most prominent cinemas in Singapore.
It is now known as the Muslim Converts’ Association of Singapore.
Golden City Theatre, Margaret Drive (1965-1984)
There were three cinemas at Margaret Drive of Queenstown in the eighties, namely Venus, Golden City and Queenstown/Queensway.
Both Venus Theatre (金都戏院) and Golden City Theatre (金城戏院) specialised in Taiwanese horror movies and gongfu flicks. The cinemas were proposed by the Singapore Improvement Trust (SIT) as early as 1958, but were originally planned to be built at Dundee Road.
After the Housing Development Board (HDB) took over from SIT, it built the twin cinemas at Margaret Drive to cater for the entertainment needs of the residents at Duchess Estate.
The locations of both cinemas are now occupied by the churches of The Fisherman of Christ Fellowship and Church of Our Saviour.
Golden Sultan Theatre, Jalan Sultan (1981-early 2000s)
Cathay Organisation’s Golden Sultan Theatre (金皇戏院) was formerly located along Jalan Sultan, off Beach Road. Its premises at Sultan Plaza is now occupied by a nightclub.
Golden Theatre, Golden Mile Tower (1970s-Present)
Situated in the Golden Mile Tower at Beach Road, Golden Theatre (黄金戏院) was opened in the early seventies, screening mainly Chinese movies until the nineties. Three halls, named Golden 1, Golden 2 and Golden Studio, were later added in a bid to restore the faltering business of the cinema.
For a period of time, Golden Theatre showed erotic films but has now switched to Hindi and Tamil blockbusters from India’s Bollywood and Kollywood.
Great World Cinemas, Kim Seng Road (1958-1978)
Great World Amusement Park was developed in the 1930s by Lee Choon Yung on a site bounded by Kim Seng Road, River Valley Road and Zion Road. Just before the Second World War, he sold the land to the Shaw Brothers.
After the war, Shaw upgraded the park and had it reopened in 1958. Its popularity soared, with people flocked to the park for food, circus shows, carnival rides and cinemas. The four theatres at Great World were Canton (广东戏院), Atlantic (大西洋戏院), Sky (青天戏院) and Globe (环球戏院).
Screening a mixture of Chinese, Cantonese and Western films, the cinemas would outlast Great World even after it shut down in March 1964. They would survive together with the restaurants until 1978, when the Shaw Organisation sold the land to Malaysia’s Robert Kuok.
Movie-watching at Great World was a considerably luxurious pastime for many, where the price of movie tickets in the sixties was 50c. During the screening of Chinese blockbusters, long queues could stretch to as far as the Kim Seng Bridge. Fans would get up early at 5am to join in the queues.
Happy/Gay World Cinemas, Mountbatten Road (1945-2000)
When Happy World was set up between Geylang Road and Mountbatten Road in 1936, it was an amusement park filled with various entertainment such as boxing matches and film-screening, where Victory Theatre was its main cinema.
Victory Theatre was set up by Goh Eng Wah, the founder of Eng Wah Organisation, in 1945. It was highly popular even though it screened many Japanese propaganda films during the end of the Second World War.
With the success of his initial investment of Victory Theatre (胜利戏院), Goh Eng Wah expanded his business and acquired the nearby Happy Theatre (快乐戏院) and Silver City Theatre (银国戏院) after the war. Eng Wah Organisation’s cinemas at Happy World specialised in Chinese movies during the fifties and sixties.
Another cinema at Happy World was New Victory Theatre (新胜利戏院), a small cinema that exhibited Malay and Indonesian films during the late seventies.
The fifth cinema at Happy World, also the smallest, was New Happy Cinema (新快乐戏院). It started to show Tamil films exclusively in 1982, and when all three Eng Wah cinemas closed down by 1987, New Happy Cinema continued to struggle until the late nineties.
Happy World was renamed as Gay World in 1966 and closed down in 2000 as the last of the three popular amusement parks, the other being New World and Great World. Together with Gay World Stadium (renamed as Geylang Indoor Stadium), it was demolished a year later.
Hollywood Theatre, Tanjong Katong Road (1959-1995)
Once famous for its screening of Chinese blockbuster flicks and the appearances of Hong Kong superstars Fung Bo Bo and Siao Fong Fong, Hollywood Theatre (好莱坞戏院) spanned for almost 40 years from the late fifties to mid-nineties.
After its closure in 1995, the building was leased to City Harvest Church for six years before the church moved to its permanent premises at Jurong West.
Hoover Theatre, Balestier Road (1960-1989, 1992-1996)
Hoover Theatre (豪华戏院) was an easy choice for fans of the Shaw Brothers’ gongfu films during the sixties and seventies. Opened in 1960, the 900-seat cinema mainly catered for the Chinese majority at Balestier, although it also screened English and Indian movies. The ticket prices ranged from $1 to $3.
With the decline of kungfu films in the eighties, Hoover Theatre was closed in December 1982 due to poor business. It, however, relaunched as Hoover Live Theatre a year later, but was used to hold live variety shows instead. In 1989, the building was leased to an independent church called His Sanctuary Services.
Hoover as a cinema was reborn once again in 1992 when the church did not renew its lease. The building was reopened as New Hoover Cinema, the first cinema in Singapore to screen classic Tamil, Sinhalese, Malayalam and Hindi films regularly.
After the cinema played its last Indian movie in 1996, the building was closed and demolished, together with President Theatre, for the construction of the new Shaw Plaza-Twin Heights. Opened in 1999, Shaw Plaza now comprises a six-screen cinema fitted with the latest digital sound systems called Balestier Cineplex.
Imperial Theatre, Upper Thomson Road (1970-1985)
Imperial Theatre (京都戏院) started operating its movie business at Upper Thomson Road since 1970. It was located beside the present-day Thomson Community Centre.
In the seventies, rows of old shops with zinc roofs lined up beside the cinema, and there were many stalls selling candies and toys to the movie-goers. By the mid-eighties, the cinema suffered a steep decline in its business and was forced to shut down. The building was temporarily used for worship services of Glory Joy Christian Church.
Today, the cinema is no longer around, and in its place stands Thomson Imperial Court. The word “Imperial” in its name is the only remnant of the former popular cinema.
Jade Theatre, Beach Road (1977-2008)
Jade Theatre (翡翠戏院) and Prince Theatre (太子戏院) were officially opened in 1977 by the Shaw Organisation at Shaw Towers, which was built much earlier in 1970 on the former sites of Alhambra and Marlborough Theatres.
In 1988, both theatres were expanded to two halls each, known as Jade 1 and Jade 2, and Prince 1 and Prince 2 respectively, under the new concept of cineplexes. The first movie to be screened at Prince was Jackie Chan’s Dragons Forever. In 1991, Jade 2 was converted into Jade Classic (新艺戏院) to cater for the niche art house audience.
In 1996, the cinemas at Shaw Towers were sold to the United Artists, which renamed the four halls into Grand Prince, Alhambra, Royal Jade and Emerald. The cinemas were later bought back by Shaw in 2001 before their closure seven years later.
Jalan Kayu Cinemas, Jalan Kayu (1960s-1980s)
There were previously a couple of small cinemas at Jalan Kayu between the sixties and the eighties. Screening mainly Chinese kungfu movies, the cinemas (永华戏院, 国华戏院, 星光戏院) provided a source of entertainment for the residents who were mostly farmers living around present-day Sengkang.
Jubilee Cinema, Ang Mo Kio Central (1979-2010)
A neighbourhood cinema at Ang Mo Kio Central owned by Eng Wah Organisation, Jubilee Cinema (光华戏院) was perhaps the smallest compared to Broadway and New Crown/New Town during the nineties. The name Jubilee might be derived from the famous Jubilee Theatre at North Bridge Road, also owned by Eng Wah Organisation and closed in the mid eighties.
The Ang Mo Kio residents would remember the small white building with Pizza Hut operating at the ground floor and Jubilee at the second level. The cinema was closed in December 2010.
Jubilee Theatre, North Bridge Road (1930s-1970s)
Opened in the 1930s beside Raffles Hotel, Jubilee Theatre (光华大戏院) was hugely popular in its early days. It was bought by Goh Eng Wah in 1966, two years before he established Eng Wah Theatres Organisation Pte Ltd.
The theatre was later demolished to make way for the extension of Raffles Hotel.
Raffles Hotel’s Victorian-styled theatre playhouse Jubilee Hall is named after this popular cinema of the early days.
Jurong Drive-In Cinema, Yuan Ching Road (1971-1985)
Opened by then Minister of Culture Jek Yeun Thong in July 1971 at Yuan Ching Road (near the Chinese and Japanese Garden), Jurong Drive-In Cinema (裕廊大影场) created a buzz among Singaporeans. It was a bold project by Cathay Organisation; the first of its kind in Singapore and Malaysia, and the largest in Asia.
When the nights fell, rows of cars were parked neatly, with their engines off, in front of a giant screen. There were poles with connecting speakers for the patrons sitting inside the cars. The experience was fresh to many, but the weather sometimes proved too much to bear, especially on humid nights or rainy days.
Nevertheless, the unique cinema was a success, which had raked in some S$12,000 in a single evening, its highest income in a day, during the screening of Bruce Lee’s Big Boss. Jurong Drive-In Cinema was closed in September 1985, and the space is now occupied by Palm Resort’s Fairway Club.
Kallang Theatre (Former), Stadium Walk (1970s-1986)
The largest commercial theatre in Southeast Asia in the seventies, Kallang Theatre (加冷戏院) was originally built as a cinema but was converted into a theatre for the arts in 1986 when the iconic National Theatre was demolished. Costing $15 million, Kallang Theatre was equipped with 100 speakers and 2400 seats segregated in four classes.
For two decades, it was used for international and local musicals and plays. The curtains came down on Kallang Theatre in 2007 when the performing arts venue was moved to Esplanade-Theatres on the Bay.
King’s Theatre, Kim Tian Road (1950s-early 1980s)
The King’s Theatre (璇宫戏院), a notable landmark at Kim Tian Road of Tiong Bahru during the sixties, mainly screened films in Amoy dialect (or Hokkien).
When the popularity of Amoy films declined in the late sixties, King’s Theatre was acquired by Goh Eng Wah in 1968 and managed to keep its business afloat by screening the upcoming Chinese films.
Kim Tian Road is now home to a housing estate.
Kok Wah Theatre, Yio Chu Kang Road (1960s-1980s)
There were once two small kampong cinemas at the junction of Upper Serangoon Road and Yio Chu Kang Road, fondly known as ow gang ngor kok jio, or Hougang five milestone. One of them was Kok Wah Theatre (国华戏院), which screened mainly Chinese, Cantonese and Teochew movies. The other was the English film-majority Mercury Theatre.
Between the sixties and eighties, the two cinemas were popular among the residents living at the nearby Chia Keng Village and Lim Tua Tow Road. After the cinemas were demolished, a building called Kovan Centre was built on their former sites. Kovan Centre itself was torn down in the late 2000s, and would be replaced by a new building called Space @Kovan, scheduled to be completed in 2016.
Kong Chian Cinema (also Central Cinema), Toa Payoh Central (1972-1987)
Kong Chian Cinema (光前戏院) was Toa Payoh’s first cinema, opened in 1972 by Cathay Organisation and located near the Toa Payoh library with its iconic fountains. During the eighties, it was one of the two cinemas at the new town of Toa Payoh, the other being Toa Payoh Cinema.
A typical small neighbourhood cinema which was later renovated and renamed as Central Cinema (中央戏院), Kong Chian Cinema screened mostly films from Hong Kong, China and even North Korea. After its closure in 1987, the building was sold to McDonald’s and is now called 600@Toa Payoh.
Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre, Chinatown (1970s-late 1990s)
Built at a cost of $100,000, Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre (牛车水人民剧场) was officially opened in March 1969, as a venue for performances of Chinese operas and the promotion of arts.
In the seventies, Cathay Organisation struck a deal to screen Hong Kong Cantonese movies at Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre. This lasted till the mid-nineties when Golden Village took over for a short period.
Today, Kreta Ayer People’s Theatre no longer screens movies, but functions as a community arts centre.
Liberty Theatre, Marine Parade Central (early 1980s-late 1980s)
Liberty Theatre (银国戏院) was opened at Marine Parade central in the early 1980s by the Shaw Organisation. It shut down at the end of the eighties and, like Dalit at Bukit Merah, the building was taken over by Christian organisation TOUCH Community Services.
Lido Cinema, Scotts Road (1959-Present)
It was only a barren piece of land with a lone Esso petrol station at the junction of Scotts Road and Orchard Road when the Shaw Brothers acquired it in 1952.
By 1958, the construction of Shaw House and the old Lido Cinema were completed, and were officially opened in November 1958 and February 1959 respectively. From the fifties to the eighties, the 1602-seat cinema remained one of the most popular cinemas in Singapore, and was one of the venues in town to hold charitable events.
The old Lido Cinema underwent a long revamp in 1996 to be converted into a eight-screen cineplex. In 2011, after another $20 million makeover, the new Lido Theatre was reopened to the delight of its fans.
Liwagu Cinema, Bedok Town Centre (1982-late 1990s)
One of the four cinemas at Bedok Town Centre in the eighties, the building of Liwagu Cinema (丽华宫戏院) was built in 1980. It started to operate its movie business in 1982 after receiving its Public Entertainment License.
After its closure, local S-league football club Geylang United moved in. In the early 2000s, the building, owned by Eagle Crest Plaza, was mortgaged to Taiwan’s First Commercial Bank, who then sought a $7.5 million sale of the building in 2003.
Majestic Theatre, Eu Tong Sen Street (1928-1998)
Built in 1928 by prominent Chinese merchant Eu Tong Sen (1877-1941) for his Cantonese opera-loving wife, the building was designed by then leading architectural firm Swan and Maclaren and was originally known as Tien Yien Moh Toi Theatre (天演舞台).
The Shaw Organisation bought it in 1938 to convert into a cinema, called Queen’s Theatre (皇后戏院), for screening of the Cantonese blockbusters. It also functioned as a venue for fund raising to aid China in the Sino Japanese War before the full-scale Second World War. During the Japanese Occupation, it was renamed as Ta He Ju Chang (大和剧场) to be used for spreading the propaganda of Japanese rule.
After the war, the Shaw Organisation leased the building again, and gave it a new name as Palace Talkies. The name Majestic Theatre (大华戏院) was used when the new tenant The Majestic Film Company moved in. The Eu family sold the building to Cathay Organisation for a hefty $1.1 million in 1956, and the cinema maintained its popularity throughout the years until its closure in 1998.
In 2003, the building was converted into a shopping mall known as The Majestic, but it could only last four years before it ceased its operation.
Mandarin Theatre, Kallang Bahru (1975-2000)
Mandarin Theatre (文华戏院) was one of Eng Wah Organisation’s ventures into the heartlands of Singapore, along with Ang Mo Kio and Toa Payoh, during the late seventies. It was situated at the junction of Kallang Bahru and Geylang Bahru.
In 2011, local supermarket Sheng Siong intended to rent the premises but the application to covert the former theatre into a supermarket and food court was rejected by HDB.
Recently, the building of the former cinema was given a fresh coat of paint and is currently undergoing some renovation, suggesting that it may be reopened for other commercial purposes. The vacated building has been on sale since 2008.
Marlborough Theatre, Beach Road (1930s-1960s)
Opened in the 1930s by the Shaw Brothers, Marlborough Theatre (曼舞罗戏院) was situated beside Alhambra Theatre along Beach Road.
The fifties and sixties were perhaps the golden era for Marlborough Theatre, where the popularity of the area was helped by the strategic locations of the original Satay Club at nearby Hoi How Road (now defunct) and the bus depot of Tay Koh Yat (郑古悦 1880-1957) Bus Company.
Mercury Theatre, Yio Chu Kang Road (1960s-1980s)
Mercury Theatre coexisted with Kok Wah Theatre at the junction of Yio Chu Kang Road and Upper Serangoon Road from the sixties to the eighties. (See Kok Wah Theatre)
Metropole Theatre, Tanjong Pagar Road (1958-1986)
The former building of the famous Metropole Theatre (金华戏院) has been standing at the junction of Tanjong Pagar Road and Neil Road, just opposite the popular Maxwell Road Hawker Centre, for more than half a century.
Metropole Theatre had been a popular cinema for Chinese movie fans from the sixties to eighties. Well-known Hong Kong actress Nancy Sit Ka Yin (薛家燕) made guest appearances at Metropole in 1967 to promote her two latest films.
In 1986, the building’s new owner spent $2.75 million to convert the place of entertainment into a place of worship. It became known as the Fairfield Methodist Church.
New City Theatre, Aljunied Avenue 2 (early 1950s-1985)
New City Theatre (新城戏院) was situated within Geylang East Town Centre, catering for the residents living in the old neighbourhood of Aljunied. In its thirty years of existence, It had seen tremendous changes in its surroundings, as the Pan-Island Expressway (PIE) was built just behind its building in the late seventies.
New City Theatre was closed in mid-eighties, taken over by the church of Bethel Assembly of God. In 2010, the old building was demolished to make way for the new multi-functional building of the church.
New Crown/New Town Cinema, Ang Mo Kio Central (1990s)
The twin cinemas of New Crown/New Town (皇冠/皇城戏院) were one of the four main cinemas at Ang Mo Kio central, where its peak was during the nineties.
After the cinema ceased its operation, the space within the building was leased to restaurants and arcade game shops. It once housed the popular Korean-styled buffet restaurant Seoul Garden. The building became known as New Crown Building but was razed to the ground by mid-2012, where a new mall is expected to be completed in a year’s time.
New World Cinemas, Jalan Besar (1960s-early 1980s)
Like Happy World and Great World, New World Park, the first of the three famous amusement parks in Singapore, also had a number of cinemas as one of its attractions to the crowds. The cinemas of Grand (大光戏院), Pacific (太平洋戏院) and State (新都戏院) were filled with people every weekend during its peak.
New World was set up by Ong Boon Tat and Ong Peng Hock in 1923, before being sold to the Shaw Brothers before the Second World War. The amusement park arguably had its golden period from the fifties to the seventies.
By early eighties, the park went into a rapid decline, not helped by the closure of Grand and Pacific Theatres, which were converted to churches temporarily. The Shaw Organisation eventually sold the land to City Development in 1987.
Ocean Theatre, Upper East Coast Road (early 1960s-1985)
When Ocean Theatre (海洋戏院) operated at Upper East Coast Road between the sixties and eighties, it showed a large variety of Malay, Tamil, English and Mandarin movies.
After its closure in 1986, the premises was converted into a 20-stall Ocean Food Centre, but its business lasted for only a couple of years.
Odeon Theatre, North Bridge Road (1953-1984)
The large 1,500-seat Odeon Theatre (奥迪安戏院), owned by Cathay Organisation, was situated opposite Raffles Hotel and Jubilee Theatre at North Bridge Road between the sixties and seventies.
Opened in June 1953, Odeon was a modern theatre by the standards of that era. Its building was equipped with a basement carpark, a fully air-conditioned cinema and eight dressing rooms. It even had a room for parents to comfort their crying babies, so as not to disturb the audience during the screening of movies.
Odeon Theatre was closed in June 1984, after some thirty years of operation. Today, Odeon Towers stands in its site, with its name the only remnant left of this once glorious cinema.
Above is the 1980 map of where Odeon Theatre was located. Jubilee Theatre at Raffles Hotel was not around anymore, while Jade and Prince Theatres at Shaw Towers had just made their debuts.
Odeon-Katong Theatre, East Coast Road (1960-1993)
Odeon-Katong Theatre (加东-奥迪安戏院) was one of the cinemas in Singapore owned by Cathay Organisation, running both Chinese and English movies. Between the sixties and eighties, it was part of Katong’s famous three cinemas; the other two being Roxy and Paradise.
The building of Odeon-Katong Theatre was later used for worship services by Bethesda Cathedral and is now mainly occupied by Cornerstone Community Church.
Orchard Cinema, Grange Road (1965-1995)
In the first year of Singapore’s independence, Cathay Organisation opened their second premier cinema after Cathay Cinema. It was the Orchard Cinema (国宾戏院) at Grange Road. The building also included a 24-lane Jackie’s Bowl (later renamed as Orchard Bowl).
Orchard Cinema was closed in 1995 for redevelopment. It took two years before Cathay Cineleisure Orchard was completed at the site of Orchard Cinema.
Oriental Theatre (Palacegay), New Bridge Road (1927-1960s)
Originally known as the Palacegay, Oriental Theatre (东方戏院) was the first cinema in Singapore to screen Chinese movies with sound when it was opened in 1927. Before Oriental Theatre, only silent films were shown.
Oriental Theatre was renamed as Toho Gekizyo during the Japanese Occupation. After the war, the Shaw Brothers bought it and name it as Oriental Theatre. The Oriental Plaza, owned by the Shaw Organisation, still bears the name of this once popular cinema at Chinatown.
Paradise Cinema (or Palace Theatre), East Coast Road (1965-1992)
Paradise Cinema (新海燕戏院), also named Palace Theatre (丽宫戏院) or Palace Centre, was located at the junction of East Coast Road and Brooke Road. From the sixties to the eighties, it was one of the three cinemas at Katong; Odeon-Katong and Roxy being the other two.
In the seventies, Paradise Cinema, owned by Cathay Organisation, was sold to Chong Gay Group. In 1989, the cinema was chosen to be one of the cinemas in Singapore to screen the best selling Taiwanese film, starring several Golden Horse Award winners, from the Taiwan Film Festival.
By the early nineties, the cinema ended its movie business and the premises was converted into a venue for live performances, named Sin Kim Kok Theatre. Today, the Eastgate Building stands in its former site.
Paramount Theatre, Portchester Avenue (1962-1983)
The Paramount Theatre (百乐门戏院) at Serangoon Gardens was more than a cinema during its heydays. It was also used as a venue for Christian prayer services and fund-raising.
When the cinema shuttered in 1983, the Paramount building went through numerous transformations in a bid to catch up with the pace of development. It became the first cinema in Singapore to be converted into a supermarket when popular retailer Fitzpatrick’s spent $1.1 million to renovate the leased premises as its eighth branch.
After its demolition, its site was occupied by Serangoon Gardens Village for more than a decade. Today myVillage @Serangoon Garden takes its place.
Paris Cinema, Victoria Street (1904-undetermined)
Paris Cinema (巴黎戏院) was considered as Singapore’s first ever cinema, built in 1904 by an Indian jewellery company.
Pavilion Cinema, Tampines Central (1993-early 2000s)
Pavilion Cinema (东艺戏院) was the first cinema to be opened in the new town of Tampines. Owned by Cathay Organisation, it opened in 1993 and closed in early 2000s. Tampines 1 Shopping Mall now stands in its former site.
Pavilion Theatre, Orchard Road (1920s-1950s)
Opened in the 1920s, Pavilion Theatre was originally known as the Paladium Theatre. Its location at the old Orchard Road was where the Specialists’ Shopping Centre previously stood.
The cinema was part of successful local Jewish businessman Joseph Aaron Elias’ (1881-1949) business empire.
After the Second World War, Pavilion Theatre was bought by the Shaw Organisation, which experimented with the smoking ban, making the air-conditioned cinema one of the first in Singapore to impose such a rule.
In 1954, Pavilion Theatre went on the national news after its manager was prosecuted for pocketing the cinema’s daily income.
Peking Theatre, Pipit Road (1960s)
Peking Theatre was once an old small open-air cinema at MacPherson.
Picturehouse, Cathay Building (1990-2000)
A small extension was added to the Cathay building in 1990, housing a restaurant and a small cinema named Picturehouse. It was used to screen global art films initially, but it would go on to include Hollywood blockbusters in the later times. Picturehouse, together with the old Cathay building, was demolished after 2000 for redevelopment.
Plaza Theatre, Jalan Sultan (late 1970s-1995, 1999-2000s)
Eng Wah Organisation-owned Plaza Theatre (光辉戏院) was once located on the seventh floor of the Textile Centre beside Sultan Plaza. It used to screen English and Chinese movies.
After its closure, it was used briefly by a church as a venue for worship services. In 1999, the cinema made a comeback, switching its strength to Tamil and Hindi films.
Premier Theatre, Claymore Drive (late 1970s-early 1980s)
Premier Theatre (辉煌戏院) was the only cinema at Orchard Towers after the 18-storey retail-office building was completed in 1975.
The cinema was operating on the fourth level in the eighties. After it was shut down, its large 16,000 square feet premises were taken over by a club called Top10. In 2006, Top10 was reopened as Top5.
President Theatre, Balestier Road (1973-1996)
Shaw Organisation-owned 1200-seating President Theatre (总统戏院) had a grand opening at the end of August 1973. It was part of Shaw’s multi-million project in the 8-storey Shaw Plaza which also consisted a restaurant, an emporium, apartments and a multi-storey carpark.
A popular venue of shopping and movies for the Singaporeans for more than twenty years, the building was eventually demolished in 1996 together with the Hoover Theatre to make way for the construction of the new Shaw Plaza-Twin Heights.
Prince Theatre, Beach Road (early 1970s-2008)
See Jade Theatre.
Princess/Rajah Cinema, Bedok Town Centre (1983-2008)
The last of the four cinema at Bedok central to shut down, Princess/Rajah Cinema (公主/王子戏院) was well known among the Bedok residents for the relatively cheaper prices of its tickets, as well as good quality of its seats and screens.
The lax rules of the neighbourhood cinema was also a plus point, as the audience had the freedom to bring all sorts of food into the cinema. But once in a while, there were complaints that someone was caught smoking in the cinema, or the operator switched off the aircon to save money when the audience was small.
The cinemas at Bedok central had seen booming business in the eighties and nineties. But by the end of 2000s, all four had to shut down due to dwindling attendance. Even cheap tickets could no longer lure the crowds. When Princess/Rajah closed in 2008, the prices of its tickets were still some 30% cheaper compared to the ones in town.
Queen’s Theatre, Geylang Road (early 1930s-1950s)
Opened in around 1932, Queen’s Theatre (乐宫/皇后戏院) was located at the junction of Geylang Road and Guillemard Road.
In 1952, Queen’s Theatre was on the headlines when a carpenter fell to his death while repairing the roof. It was the cinema’s second fatal accident in three years. Rumours started to spread that a spiteful ghost was haunting the ceiling of the cinema, so much so that no workmen wanted to take up the repair job. It did not help that Queen’s Theatre was built on the site of an old Malay cemetery.
Despite the rumours, crowds were still patronising Queen’s Theatre which showcased Malay, Indonesia and even Egyptian movies. It was so popular that the Shaw Organisation once expressed interest in acquiring the cinema.
Today, the site of the former cinema is occupied by Grandlink Square.
Queenstown/Queensway Cinema, Commonwealth Avenue (1977-1999)
Queenstown/Queensway Cinema (皇宫/女皇戏院) was part of the three cinemas at Duchess Estate of Queenstown, where they had their glories during the seventies and eighties.
One of the earliest cinemas in Singapore, termed as multiplexes, to be fitted with modern facilities; a twin-hall cinema, a 18-lane bowling alley, karaoke lounges and fast food restaurants, Queenstown/Queensway Cinema was the favourite hangout for scores of students and residents living nearby. Accessibility was also made easier when the Queenstown MRT Station opened in 1988.
However, towards the end of the nineties, Queenstown/Queensway Cinema could not compete against the new multiplexes fitted with better picture quality and Dolby Surround sound effect, leading to its closure in 1999. With the crowds gone, the bowling alley also ceased its operation a year later, along with the fast food restaurant of Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC).
The theatre was then leased to a billiard and gaming shop. They could not last long and the building was left vacated since then. It was sold for $10.2 million in October 2002.
Regal Theatre, Bukit Merah Town Centre (1979-late 1990s)
Owned by Cathay Organisation, Regal Theatre (皇都戏院) was one of the only two cinemas at Bukit Merah central; the other one being Dalit Theatre. As the first suburban cinema by Cathay, it was opened in 1979, catering to the residents of Bukit Merah, Redhill Close and Henderson.
After it was shut down at the end of the nineties, the building continued to enjoy crowds due to the popular McDonald’s fast food restaurant at the ground level. The ownership of the building changed hands in 2000 for $12 million, but McDonald’s continue to lease the premises until late 2000s.
By mid-2012, the building was demolished, with the site likely to be replaced by a new educational and training center.
Republic Theatre, Marine Parade Central (early 1980s-early 1990s)
Republic Theatre (金国戏院) was one of the two cinemas, the other being Liberty Theatre, at Marine Parade central during the eighties. Its Chinese name means golden kingdom, while Liberty means silver kingdom.
Both Republic and Liberty were owned by the Shaw Organisation. While Liberty Theatre exhibited mostly Chinese movies, Republic was the venue in Marine Parade for the fans of English films. Liberty could not survive after the mid-eighties, but Republic was given a chance when it was converted into a three-screen cinema in 1989. However this proved to be short lived as Republic Theatre was also closed a few years later.
In 1992, it was used briefly for worship services by Bethesda Charismatic Centre.
Rex Theatre, Mackenzie Road (1946-1983, 2009-Present)
Rex Theatre (丽士戏院) opened with a bang in 1946 by the Shaw Organisation, screening its first movie “The Jungle Book”. The cinema, located at Mackenzie Road near Little India, lasted some thirty-plus years before it ceased its operation after “Jaws” in 1983.
In 1976, Rex Theatre became a talking point as crowds were seen queuing for the screening of “Earthquake”, the first film in Singapore with the new “Sensurround” sound effects that could send vibrations through the cinema seats as the simulation of a real earthquake.
When Rex Theatre closed in 1983 due to struggling movie industry, it was converted into a performance house for two years. Several popular Taiwanese and Hong Kong singers such as Steven Liu (刘文正) and Roman Tam (罗文) had their concerts held there. In 1989, the cinema building was used as an ice-skating rink by Fuji and then leased to a church in the late nineties.
In 2001, the building of Rex Theatre was acquired by Ryan Wong, former national squash player and the elder brother of local artiste Wong Li-Lin. It was rebranded as TJ Live House, consisting of a disco, pub and a performing stage for live bands. Invested by two businessmen, Rex Theatre finally reopened as a cinema in 2009 for the screening of Indian films.
Roxy Cinema, East Coast Road (1930s-1978)
Roxy Cinema (乐斯戏院) was opened in the 1930s at East Coast Road, opposite the famous Red House Bakery. Being the first cinema in the eastern part of Singapore, it was a favourite haunt, especially among the Eurasian students of the nearby St Patrick’s School.
After the Second World War, the Shaw Brothers bought over the cinema. Its household name was retained while the cinema continued its screening of wide varieties of English, Chinese, Malay and Indian movies. It was not until 1978 when Roxy Cinema was sold by the Shaw Organisation.
During its heydays, the cinema was so popular in Katong that its premises were referred as “The Roxy Area”. After its demolition, a new building, named as Roxy Square, was built in 1984 near the location of the old theatre.
Royal Theatre, North Bridge Road (early 1900s-1977)
Like Diamond Theatre which was standing by its side at North Bridge Road, Royal Theatre mainly screened Tamil films, but it was opened almost half a century earlier than Diamond.
Royal Theatre first started as a Malay theatre before switching to Indian movies from the fifties to seventies, a golden period of its colourful history when it enjoyed brisk businesses. It, however, was also bothered by fires, black market tickets and gangsterism.
Ruby Theatre, Balestier Road (1958-1985)
Ruby Theatre was opened by Cathay Organisation along Balestier Road in 1958.
In the seventies and eighties, the Balestier area had a reputation of being a mini entertainment hub, as three cinemas, the other two being President and Hoover, stood here. There was also the Shaw Studio at Jalan Ampas which specialised in Malay films for almost thirty years.
In 1986, the residential-cum-shopping mall Balestier Point was built replacing the demolished Ruby Theatre.
Savoy Cinema, Boon Lay Place (1980s-late 1990s)
Shaw Organisation stretched its movie empire to the far western part of Singapore when it opened a branch at Boon Lay Place in the eighties. It was called Savoy Cinema (四海戏院), or commonly known as Old Boon Lay Cinema.
The cinema underwent a major renovation in 1988, after which it received its first Public Entertainment License for its two new cinema halls. But by the late nineties, its business declined due to the opening of the new Jurong Point Shopping Mall with its Golden Village Cinemas.
After its closure, the ground premises was occupied by McDonald’s for a period of time, before taken over by a kopitiam.
Seletar Cinema, Sembawang Road (1930s-1960s)
Seletar Cinema, previously called Pei Li Cinema, was opened in the 1930s at Bah Soon Pah area (between Sembawang Road and the current Yishun Avenue 6) for the benefits of the villagers. It was then purchased by Lim Chong Pang (1904-1956) at the end of 1930s and renamed as Seletar Cinema.
In 1947, the cinema was bought by Koh Chin Chong who called it Nee Soon Cinema. When the business of the cinema deteriorated, it was shut down and its building was converted into a motor-car showroom.
Singapura Cinema (formerly Taj Cinema), Changi Road (1960s-early 2000s)
Singapura Cinema (新加坡戏院), formerly known as Tai Cinema, was an iconic landmark at Geylang Serai. Owned by the Shaw Organisation, it used to screen Malay movies. Standing beside Geylang Serai Market and Hawker Centre, the cinema was part of a development plan for the needs of the residents living at Geylang Serai.
The brown building is expected to be demolished soon for the construction of new condominium Millage @Changi.
Sin Wah Theatre, Lorong Ah Thia (1970s-late 1980s)
The air-conditioned Sin Wah Theatre (新华戏院) was once a popular landmark among the residents of the old Bukit Panjang. The humble cinema, standing next to a two-storey shophouse with kopitiam, provision shops, tailor shops and electronic shops, was often used as a venue for fund-raising events and children’s singing competitions.
Specialised in Chinese kungfu movies as well as the Western films, Sin Wah Theatre finally met its demise in the late eighties due to the rapid development of the new town of Bukit Panjang.
Straits Theatre, Old Woodlands Town Centre (1970s-1984)
The Straits Theatre (海峡戏院), located at the Old Woodlands Town Centre, specialised mainly Malay and Indonesian films. By 1984, it was shut down and its building was sold for other commercial use.
Sultan Theatre, Chong Pang Village (1930s-1980s)
Sultan Theatre began as early as the 1930s. The project was initiated by Lim Chong Pang, who continued his father Lim Nee Soon’s involvement in the development and municipal works of the present-day Yishun and Sembawang areas.
Due to he increasing population in the villages scattered around Nee Soon, Lim Chong Pang felt that there was a need to construct an entertainment center for the residents. Sultan Theatre survived until the eighties, maintaining its high popularity with its imported Chinese movies.
Surina Theatre, North Bridge Road (1920s)
One of the early pre-war cinemas at North Bridge Road along with Tivoli and Jubilee, Surina Theatre was a high-end cinema patronised largely by the British.
It was opened in the early 1920s, importing British movies and charging $2.00 to $2.50 for its reserved seats, which was a hefty amount during that era.
Taman Jurong Cinema, Yung Sheng Road (early 1970s-mid 1990s)
The former Taman Jurong Cinema was located near the junction of Yung Sheng Road and Corporation Drive. Taman Jurong was the first housing estate, followed by Boon Lay Garden, Teban Garden and Pandan Garden, that was developed by the Jurong Town Corporation (JTC) in 1964. As the housing estate grew rapidly in the early seventies, a swimming complex, stadium, community centre and cinema were added.
Taman Jurong Cinema was not the earliest cinema in the western part of Singapore. After the Second World War, a Jewish businessman called Joe David set up an open-air cinema using the site of a former sawmill.
The former building of Taman Jurong Cinema is currently being leased to S-11 Eating House.
Tivoli Theatre, North Bridge Road (1910s-1930s)
The name Tivoli was taken from the old classic cinema Tivoli Theatre located at Scotland, also known as Her Majestic’s Theatre. Like Surina, it showcased British films and was popular among the Eurasians. Its golden period bettered Surina, lasting more than two decades before the Second World War.
Toa Payoh Cinema, Toa Payoh Central (1972-2010)
Toa Payoh Cinema (大巴窑戏院) was opened by Eng Wah Organisation in 1972, one of its bold moves in opening a cinema at the heartlands of Singapore. It was one of the two cinemas, the other being Kong Chian Cinema, at Toa Payoh Central.
It was upgraded to Toa Payoh Entertainment Centre but had ceased its operation by 2010. It was then sold to Hersing Pte Ltd for S$66 million a year later, and the building is now known as ERA Building.
Venus Theatre, Margaret Drive (1965-1984)
See Golden City Theatre.
White Sands Cinema, Paris Ris Central (1990s-early 2000s)
Eng Wah Organisation’s White Sands Theatre (白沙戏院), located at Pasir Ris’ White Sands Shopping Centre, closed in the early 2000s while the shopping mall itself changed ownership in 2007.
Its premises now houses the Pasir Ris Public Library.
Wembley Theatre, Geylang (1930-undetermined)
Wembley Theatre was one of Singapore’s earliest suburban cinemas when it was opened at Geylang in 1930.
Woodlands Theatre, Old Woodlands Town Centre (1980-early 2000s)
The residents of Woodlands were delighted when the Shaw Brothers opened the Woodlands Theatre (兀兰戏院) in February 1980. It was the first cinema at the Old Woodlands Town Centre, a transition point that was popular among Singaporean and Malaysian travellers between the two countries during the seventies to nineties.
During its premier, Woodlands Theatre screened a Chinese movie called Fists of the White Lotus, starring popular Hong Kong artistes Lo Lieh, Liu Chia Hui and Hui Ying Hung. The popular demand in the early eighties saw Woodlands Theatre put on five movies daily.
In 1989, Shaw Organisation converted Woodlands Theatre into a two-hall 600-seating multiplex (Woodlands 1 and 2). It was Shaw’s sixth cinema conversion after Prince, Jade, Savoy, Republic and Changi.
Like Old Woodlands Town Centre itself, Woodlands Theatre gradually lost its popularity by the late nineties. The opening of Causeway Point in 1998 helped determine its final days.
Yangtze Theatre, Eu Tong Sen Street (1977-2015)
Perhaps more famous for its screening of erotic films, Yangtze Theatre (长江戏院) actually came a long way. Started in 1977, it mainly showed Chinese kungfu movies, catering to the Chinese-dominated Chinatown and People’s Park.
In 1988, its Malaysian owners Sun Chai Realty Pte Ltd tried to sell the building for $6 million without success.
In the late 2000s, the cinema tried to change its image by switching the majority of its screened films to mainstream blockbusters, but the move failed and the cinema faced financial difficulties. In 2011, a $350,000 renovation was given to the aging cinema, and crowds began to return for the erotic movies again. However, it could only last for another couple of years before its eventual closure in 2015.
Yi-Lung Cinema, Dover Road (1970s-1980s)
Yi-Lung Cinema was a small cinema that existed at the quiet neighbourhood of Dover between the late seventies and early eighties.
Zenith Theatre, Tampines Road (late 1960s-1984)
A cinema called Zenith Theatre (仙宫戏院) that mainly showcased Malay and English films once stood along Tampines Road.
It was took over by the church of Bethel Assembly of God in 1984, which then moved to New City Theatre a year later.
Today, Fortune Park Condominium stands at Zenith Theatre’s original site.
Others: Cinemas in British Military Camps (1950s-1970s)
British army and naval camps used to have small cinemas for the benefit of their crews.
The Royal Air Force based at Tengah Air Base had an Astra Cinema, while there was a Kent Cinema, housed together with a bowling alley, at Dover Road possibly for the welfare of the British military stationed at the nearby Portsdown Camp. A cinema by the name of AKC Cinema also once existed at Gillman Camp. In the north, there was this Naval Base Cinema located at Sembawang Naval Base (1938-1968).
Screening mostly British films, the cinemas were opened to the public as well.
Others: Film Studios (1937-1973)
Two film studios that deserved a place in the history of Singapore-produced movies were the Shaw’s Malay Film Studio (1937-1942, 1947-1967) at Jalan Ampas and Cathay-Keris Studio (1953-1973) at East Coast Road.
Set up by the Shaw Brothers in 1937 to produce Malay movies for the local clientele, the Malay Film Studio launched more than 160 films in more than two decades, in what was known as the “Golden Age of Malay Cinema”. The legendary actor, singer and director Tan Sri P. Ramlee (1929-1973) was the most famous name to emerge from the studio, winning numerous awards and honours from his 70 films and 200 songs.
After its abandonment for several decades, the premises of the Malay Film Studio was given a fresh makeover in early 2012, ending speculation that the land it is sitting on might be used for private residential purposes.
Cathay joined in the black and white Malay movie industry with its Cathay-Keris Studio established in 1953. Encouraged by the success of its 1957 Malay blockbuster, Pontinanak, Cathay produced a series of movie sequels and other Malay supernatural films. The Lion City in 1960 was Singapore’s first locally produced Chinese-language movie.
How many of these old cinemas do you remember? 😉
Published: 02 August 2012
Updated: 28 June 2021
i have something of the same theme. hope it can trigger your next post.
Thank you so much for all that was put together. Strangely, some parts of this post brought certain answers to me (another thing altogether) from the placement of each photograph and the names of some theatres. Illuminating read.
Thank you, so much for this down memory lane… you stirred my memory as I had forgotten about Mercury which you had to walk through an alley… to get to it… and Kok Wah such a wonderful time.. I Queqed up at Kok Wah to watch “Big Boss”.. the price of back row seat .. think it was $1 , 50 cents for front row… There was another theatre along Lowland road more of an open air type called Empire…
Going to Capitol, Cathay or Lido.. was a big affair for us “kampong guys”.. we would put on our best cloths … 🙂
Somehow going to the cinema always makes one want to dress to the nines! That indescribable (quiet) excitement.
I wanted to add the photo of Kok Wah Theatre in but unfortunately couldn’t find any photos of it yet
Oh, I would Have luved to see pics on Kok Wah… unfortunately neither do I !
I believe this is a photo showing the interior of Kok Wah Theatre
(it has been labelled wrongly by the National Archives of Singapore)
I have pictures of Kok Wah and Bright Cinemas but how do I even upload the pictures?
Hi, you can email to firstname.lastname@example.org, I can upload and embed the photos here 🙂
Hi, just wanted to contribute some facts correction with regards to Zenith Theatre.
Zenith Theatre existed till the early 90’s. I found a receipt of my ticket which shows 1991 December on it recently.
Agreed, I moved to Hougang in ’85 and Zenith Theatre was the nearest screen in the vicinity. Over the years till the early 90’s, I’ve watched countless movies there.
In the 1980s, we always went to Paramount Theare for two movies at price of 1 ticket.
Totally impressed. You have really done your research well.
Ape used to stay in Taman Jurong. The Drive-In Cinema and Taman Jurong Cinema really brought back a lot of memories for me.
Kent cinema along Dover Road in the early 70s was for the ANZUK forces based in sg. They admitted SAF personnel (not many knew this). I (doing NS then) used to go and watch those movies that were not shown in the local cinemas. Their admission was quite expensive, at least twice what the local cinemas charged but I got to watch many uncensored movies and those times the censorship was horrible.
An amazing and exhaustive list. Brought back many fond memories. I am glad you included the Sutlan and Naval Base theatres where I grew up. I am wondering whether you also have pcitures of the other two lesser known cinemas in the same area. They are Kindol Theatre (Jalan Sendudok, opposite Chong Pang village, near the present day Sembawang Shopping Centre) and Canberra Theatre at the end of Jalan Kedai, off Canberra Rd, near today’s Sembawang MRT station
Thank you for putting up this extensive list. It brought back many wonderful memories of growing up watching movies in the 80s and 90s, watching Hollywood blockbusters at the grander town cinemas (Lido, Cathay), and Hong Kong movies from Jackie Chan and Stephen Chow at the cozy neighbourhood ones (Kong Chian, Broadway). Great times!
Many Great buildings in the past. Especially theatrical architecture. Such majestic designs are hard to come by these days. I’m actually in pre-production phase of a short film on Old Cinemas in Singapore. This article provided me great information! I only saw Queensway, woodlands, capitol and Savoy still intact, are the others still around? I would like to get some exterior shots for the film!
Anyone kind enough to provide me further sources that other buildings are still intact? I’ll make sure to give credits in the film!
Hi, here’s the breakdown:
Broadway – building intact but is Broadway Plaza now
Cathay – front facade conserved in 2003, but other parts of the building were rebuilt
Capitol – conserved in 2007, under renovation now
Empress – just demolished a few weeks back
Hollywood – building intact
Jubilee (AMK) – building intact but is a small shopping mall now
Kallang – building intact but is probably vacated
Kreta Ayer – building used as a community arts centre now
Majestic – conserved in 2005, used as a shopping mall now
Mandarin – building intact but vacated
Metropole – building intact, used as a church
New Crown/New Town – demolished a few weeks back
Odeon-Katong – building intact, used as a church
Princess/Rajah – building intact but vacated
Queenstown/Queensway – building intact but vacated
Regal – demolished a few weeks back
Republic – building intact, used as a neighbourhood mall
Rex – reopened as a new cinema
Savoy – building intact but vacated, ground floor occupied by kopitiam
Singapura – building intact but vacated, ground floor occupied by kopitiam
Woodlands – building intact but vacated
Yangtze – still operating as a cinema
Jubilee was at North Brige Road (opp Odeon) before it was torn down to build the extension of Raffles Hotel. Later it shifted to AMK in the 80s.
Thank you so much! This website will be credited for such in depth information given! kudos~
The Film should be ready around october 2012. I will send you an email of the link to the film, stay tuned! 🙂
Wow, impressive. You are becoming like a mini-Wikipedia about Singapore history. How did you obtain such extensive information – background, history, old photographs and everything? Care to share with everyone?
I collected the info bit by bit… from internet, library and the newspapers. Snapped the photos (of those buildings still standings) when I passed by.
This article actually took me almost three months to finish
thank you, well done..
What a wonderful and worthwhile effort. Thanks a lot.
Great article. Wasn’t there a Vision Cineplex in Hougang also?
of course i remember all of this. i lived in Singapore from 1951 too 1996 and i am a Singapore citizen and very proud of this beautiful island!
There was an open-air cinema called Southern, on Braddell Road, where Bishan is today. One sat on long wooden benches, and on a rainy night, carried an umbrella. Tickets cost 30 cents (front row) and 50 cents (back row).
I’m sure I’ve missed many old forgotten cinemas in the list.
There were probably more than a hundred of them in Singapore
I remembered that too, having lived along Braddell in the 70’s. The screen was probably no larger than today’s 100inch projector screens but yes, I do recall the 30 cents one had to pay for a front seat! Memories….
@Remember Singapore, thank you for spending the time. Defunct cinemas is always my interest.
@Tan Tan: Southern is 南国, according to some taxi driver, is located at the exisiting RI school site.
@Chee Nien, Vision Cineplex 伟胜 of Hougang Central was opened in mid 90s, however due to the building structure ( Bowling Centre was built above the cinema!!! What a brilliant architect. Lol ) and other reasons, the cinema closed eventually, a furniture shop has been occupying the premises in recent year, but not sure about today.
i’m totally flabberghausted..so many cinemas i’d never knew existed…
During the late 50s and sixties, i watched movies at least once a week at Naval Base Theatre which was air-condtioned and cost 50cents for a ticket. The movie screening was preceded by
the British National Anthem ‘God Save The Queen’ and Pathe News about Britain. After the movie there was “fish and chips’ available from a converted bus just across the street.
Thank you so much for your effort! It certainly brought back many memories especially the clementi one.
Your site is really awesome! Especially this post… you must have done a lot of research.
I managed to capture some photos of Empress Theatre and Regal Theatre before they were demolished. In fact I just recently posted my photos of Empress Theatre on my blog: http://lostnfiledsg.wordpress.com/2012/07/30/clementi-avenue-3-estate/
Do let me know if you want the Regal Theatre photos, I’d love to share them 🙂
Thanks! Your blog is nice too 🙂
Yep, pls post the photos of the Regal Theatre
Hi! Photos of Regal Theatre and its vicinity can be found here: http://lostnfiledsg.wordpress.com/2012/08/09/bukit-merah-town-centre/
Happy National Day!
Thank u for the info. I remember going to holland village cinema and the movie I watched was Happy ghost.
wah … i did not know singapore had so many cinemas before … i`ve been to many of those cinemas featured but had also since been demolished…. sigh,
Many thanks, sure brought back many fond memories, not to forget that we used to have a drive-in cinema at Jurong near where Chinese garden is located.
Royal Cinema at north bridge road , within a short walking distance from Bugis. It was beside Diamond Cinema ( show tamil movies).
Also, Jubilee opporiste Odeon . It was demolish and replace with Raffles Hotel extension.
Nanyang at Bukit Timah Beauty World.
Sin Wah at 10 mile near Bukit Pajang.
I remember the old Sun Cinema inside New World Amusement Park which I paid 50 cents for a front row ticket. Seats were all wooden seats. There was also another open air cinema in Pek Kio where the entrance fee was 20 cents.
Only 3 cinemas in New World Amusement Park . State (only tamil), Pacific and Grand. There is no Sun cinema. Maybe u refer to great world or Happy world amusement park?
Thank you for such a comprehensive list of cinemas…………it sure brings back fond memories…..especially the neighbourhood ones where I can go for the midnight show and then walk home because it was so near home…..just across the road! I remember there was a cinema called Sky in Great World……………is that right?
The old Odeon Theatre in Penang is still around!
in singapore or in malaysia
There was Ponggol Theatre in Lorong Buangkok near the Ponggol wet market and Eng wah Theatre at Jalan Kayu. Would be nice if anyone has photos to share.
Well done ir brought bak old memories of Roxy and Odean Katong and Palace Theatres. Any old photos of Roxy I remember their 11 am shows on Sun. Thanks for the memories
”Empire Theatre” at the Junction of Lowland Road and Upper Seranggon Road (Shaw Bros} and
”Mercury Cinema” along Upper Serangoon Road ”5 mile stone”,. Bright Cinema along Paya Lebar Road will be nice additions to the impressive list.
Yes I do remember the Bright Cinema near the Lor Tai Sing area. Incidentally there was South Country at Kampong San Teng Braddell area. Not sure if this is the same as the Southern Cinema that was mentioned earlier. Does anyone remember the name of the cinema at Pek Kio which was mentioed in an earlier post?
a ghost story of savoy in boon lay
Thanks for the fantastic compilation. Just a small correction about Zenith Theatre which I used to go – It co-existed with Wing Tai Building. In its place now is Fortune Park Condominium.
Thanks for the clarification!
There was little info about Zenith Theatre found
Interesting info. Great job @Remember Singapore. With regards to Zenith Theatre, I lived in the area from mid 70s to early 90s. Zenith was 5 minutes walk away. A favourite haunt of our family. One particular midnight movie, in 1979 (something to do with ghosts, tombstones and graveyards) had us all walking home quietly, spooked after watching. Till today I am still trying to remember the title, still trying to find the movie. If anyone who used to stay in Hougang and happened to watch that particular movie (which was a little similar to the present day Ghost Rider series starring Nicholas Cage) do let me know.
interesting info. appreciate the great effort that must have gone into compiling all this
When i was young, there was Ama Keng (rural area) open air cinema. When it rains we promote ourselves to shelter seats. Outside this cinema got the best thick black sweet Char Keow Teow with big cockles. The slope up the cinema is plain soil so the cockles shells serves as grips as its sleepy.
There another open air cinema at Bt Timah 7th miles. Now open carpark where the downtown 2nd line is being built.
Somehow those rural old cinemas always had good food stalls nearby. I remember just near the Ponggol Theatre there was a good or luak stall and further down the main road the famous ponggol bak chor mee. I must say that though the comfort of the old cinemas may not be as what the modern cineplexes offer I somehow miss the excitement and the nostalgia of the old stand alone cinemas even those in rural kampong areas. I am trying to compile a list of old cinemas with names and location.
Bt Timah 7 mile… The one I know is Nanyang Cinema. It charge 50cts only in the 80s.
Sorry, the cinema I refer to is actually at Thong Hoe Village, near Neo Tiew Rd.
I was posted to S Gedong Camp in 1980 during my NS, and I remember watching a movie at this open-air theatre. The char kway teow stall was at the kopitiam at the junction of Lim Chu Kang Road and Si Gedong Road.
Sin Wah at Bukit Panjang is it next to the railway..!? Is yes then it added to my memery that I was around there 40 years ago for my NS duty at keat Hong Camp During the show it’s always added extra sound effect when train were passes-by
unfortunate got no camera in those days,cant afford actually,coz few more cinemas along pasir panjang rd and telok blangah besides the ciros cinema, like the starlight cinema show in tamil and olden goldies like roy rogers, one ranger and malay pontianak horror movies and the malay comedian, wahid satay and near to ciros cinema was the open air one outside the keppel habour area opposite the old morse rd flats for the psa staff. each ticket cost 15ct but need to bring your own umbrellas never know when its going to rain.and another one the newstar cinema at the junction of pasir panjang and south bouna vista rd. thks for the memories, esp the globe cinema at kim seng rd and the gt. wanton noodles hawked by pushcart vendors outside the fencing.so romantic and nostalgic those days
would be ever so grateful if anyone here who remembers Gay/Happy World (or knows someone who does) could do a short survey about their experiences there at this link here: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?formkey=dEVSRmpERkl4d1kzdkRFSVNQcFJfMWc6MQ
Your responses will be used for a school project. Thank you so much in advance!
May I ask if it is possible for me to get the summary of the survey that you did about Gay World? I am doing a research about Happy/Gay World, finding out more about this amusement park. It is also for a school project. And it will be great if I get to know more about the cinemas in Gay World. I will cite you for the survey done haha.
Thank you very very much. It makes me feel like a teenager now ……those sweet memories
A complete list of cinemas in Singapore in 1988
(from the 1988 street directory)
Thank you for this wonderful blog of cinemas in Singapore past and present.
As I have not studied the input here entirely I wonder if the Sampan Cinema of the British Army origin at Dempsey Road and the one at South Bouna Vista/Pasir Panjang junction (name forgotten) have been included in these memories.
Your article is indeed interesting. Born a ”hougang boy’, I remember Kwong Wah in Upp Paya Lebar Road @ Tai Seng, Kok Wah at Yio Chu Kang Road and Mercury Cinema @ Upp Serangoon Road where I went for the Sunday matinees, usually showing cowboy movies at 50cents.
You forgot “SKY” Theatre in Graet World next to Globe. and also “Atlantic” beside the front entrance of Great World Amusement Park, Kim Seng Road.
i remember going to the sky cinema 3 times . once to see the opening night of Ferry Cross the Mersey in 1965, then the Quests in Concert, and in 1966, the film GOAL about England winning the football world cup.
At the eastern side of Singapore, there was also an Astra Cinema located at RAF Changi, for the benefits of the British military personnel and their families
Map of RAF Changi in 1965
(Photo source: The History of Changi)
Correction Eng Wah West Mall closed in Nov 2012. It’s now being replaced by Cathay West Mall. So, only Eng Wah Suntec is still open until Eng Wah Empress Square Opens. Then, Eng Wah will have 2 outlets: One at Suntec, the other at Empress Square.
Wow! Great compilation of cinemas in Singapore. In the 60’s, I used to live in old Woodland Road where there’s one zinc build open air cinema named ‘Mellow’. Not sure who own it but I used to climbed on nearby tree to watch movie for free and sometime peek into hole made earlier by naughty kampong boys. Compliment of your hard work compiling it, remind me of yesteryear. 🙂
Very interesting indeed. I myself lived near a kampong in Ponggol that had a cinema by that name which I mentioned in my earlier blog. Whats more interesting is that it was a family owned cinema whereby the owner doubles as an usher while the wife runs the stall selling snacks and daughter runs the counter selling tickets. In the day you could catch the owner changing cinema posters at the lobby and various points along old Ponggol Road and even in some old dirt tracks. It would be good if anyone had pictures of the old kampong cinemas to share.
The front view of Odeon Cinema at North Bridge Road, 1960s
Hi! May I ask where and how you obtained the pictures of both the Shaw Brothers and Loke Wan Tho? I’d like to use these photos for an online webisode. Do get back to me if you can! Thank you.
Hi, as a UK military family resident in the 1960s, I think your section on military cinemas is not as well informed as the rest of the site. When we first went there in 1963, we went to the Regal at Gillman barracks, the Astras at either Changi or Tengah, and most often to the Sampan which was the main cinema for Tanglin HQ Barracks (not mentioned by you at all), near to the swimming pool there.
As a resident of the then Medway Park Officers Quarters, I remember well the opening of the Kent Cinema and Bowling Alley imeediately accessible off Dover Road. This facility was widely used my many of the British military and their children from 1965 onwards. It was a very modern cinema and air conditioned of course… Oh for those Saturday morning screenings with frozen Mars bars and a Seven Up in hand!
Dear Mr Simpson,
Thank you for your contribution. On 20 Dec 2012 I commented in this blog with a reference to the Sampan Cinema in the army bastion of Dempsey Road. As far as I know Sampan was for the armed forces personnel. However some time in 1961 (when I was 13 years old) there was an announcement in the local newspapers that it was open to the public to watch an England (football) game on Pathe News. I walked from nearby Queenstown and watched England thrashed the auld rival Scotland 9-3 at Wembley Stadium. I read that for a long time the English fans used to ask ‘What time is it?’ The mocking answer would be ‘Nine past Haffey’. Poor Frank Haffey, the Scots goalkeeper that day winning his second and last cap, eventually emigrated to Australia. We wondered why!
Oh, by the way, I read that we had a cinema named Wembley Theatre, opened at Geylang in 1930 and subsequently closed.
Kent Cinema has been mentioned a few times in the comments of this blog. Unlike Sampan it was more conspicuous on Dover Road, next to the Warren Golf Club. We used to play football on the open fields across the road, where the Singapore Polytechnic is now. One day a fire burnt down Kent Cinema. That was its ignoble end. But old folks like us still fondly recall Kent whenever we travel along Dover Road.
Yeo Hock Yew
15 Feb 2013
Thanks for the contributions!
Keep them coming to relive our memories 🙂
Update: Eng Wah Suntec’s Closing on Thursday,Feb 21 2013 to be replaced by GV.
Wow,thank you! Your blog jogged the recesses of my mind, and it just came back to me – as a Thomson kid and current resident, i went to Imperial Cinema as a child! But I had forgotten all about it until i saw the photo on your blog! i now remember it all – there was sand always infront of the cinema – like a sandy lane – but bigger than a lane, like the whole area in front of the cinema was sandy – and stalls were set up on weekdays i think in front of the cinema where people would sell fruit and stuff! It’s fascinating to remember these things – so A BIG thank you, to you and your blog!
It sure brought back wonderful memories of days gone by. Sigh! I never knew there were so many cinemas on such a small island.
Thanks for the information.
The Majestic Theatre, Great Southern Hotel and an unpainted People’s Park Complex along Eu Tong Sen Street 1980s
(Photo credit: National Archives of Singapore)
It’s a fantastic job collating such photos and write-ups . Really thanks for the memories . Hope more people with old photos will contribute to your great collection. Does anyone know or have any pictures of these cinemas that I used to patronize as a primary school kid in the 60s and early 70s: Bright Cinema along Upper Paya Lebar Rd and two roof-less cinemas called Rose at Lorong Tai Seng and Peking in the Kallang Pudding area? I used to be a resident of Jalan Merpati and these cinemas were within walking distance and they were our main recreational outlets other than playing barefoot soccer ,spider-catching, longkang fishing, kite-flying , plucking guava fruits from nearby squatters’ gardens etc.
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The Story of Kong Ngee: a Singapore film company that produced celebrated Cantonese films
October 2, 2013
SINGAPORE – Few have heard of the Kong Ngee Film Company, set up by Singapore brothers Ho Khee-yong and Ho Khee-siang, but it was a film studio which produced numerous iconic Cantonese films in the 1950s and 1960s.
From Oct 10 – 20, the National Museum of Singapore will present The Story of Kong Ngee, an account of the studio’s rise and fall, and through a showcase of 15 outstanding Cantonese films it produced from the 1950s and 1960s.
Museum Director Angelita Teo shared that the film showcase will be a homage to the film company and its contributions to the Cantonese film industry. The films will also offer the audience a glimpse of the rich culture and history of the past era, she added.
Kong Ngee’s repertoire of films spanned various genres – detective mysteries, melodramas and romantic comedies, which reflected urban life from that time period. The innovative film studio created films with engaging stories and relatable characters, using universal themes such as vengeance and interracial love. It was also known for its Hollywood-inspired offerings and ‘odd-couple’ films.
The Nanyang Trilogy (1957), highlight of the film showcase, comprises of the films Blood Stains the Valley of Love, China Wife and Moon over Malaya, which helped establish stars Patsy Kar Ling and Patrick Tse Yin as the ideal silver-screen couple. There will also be a special screening of Incredible Rumour (1968) by Ho Kian-ngiap, son of Kong Ngee founder Ho Khee-yong.
The Story of Kong Ngee will run from Oct 10 – 20 at the National Museum of Singapore’s Gallery Theatre. Tickets are priced at $9 (includes SISTIC handling fees).
This blog is wonderful and it give an insight view of cinema scene especially to those who were born in the late 90’s onwards. Here I learnt that it is ‘IT’ thing back in the 50’s – 70’s and how everyone would dress up just for the occasion. I remember my parents telling me that to enjoy the movie they will go for snack like mixed nuts, prawn cracker, steam peanut/corn and sweet like ‘Hudsons’ or ‘Hacks’. Also, I would never know about the ticket with a pencil marks scribble across it until I saw it here. Thank you once again for all those who left a reply and the blogger who wrote this.
Wow! What a wonderful article. It has obviously brought lots of memories to many people judging by the comments on this site. Just one correction in an otherwise excellent article. Kollywood is not the movie industry of India and Nepal. India does not have one movie industry. Since it is so large and has many spoken languages, there are many film industries in India, the two most famous being Hindi cinema (Bollywood) and Tamil cinema (Kollywood). Tamil cinema is from Tamil Nadu, a state in the Southern part of India. Tamil cinema is only the third largest cinema in India after Hindi and Telugu (from the state of Andra Pradesh). But in terms of overseas exposure, it is the second largest after Hindi cinema. For Tamil cinema, Malaysia and Singapore have always been very important overseas markets.
Thanks for this info! Have done the necessary amendment
Run Run Shaw, Movie Mogul Seen as Creator of Kung Fu Genre, Dies at 106
THE NEW YORK TIMES
January 6, 2014
Run Run Shaw, the colorful Hong Kong media mogul whose name was synonymous with low-budget Chinese action and horror films — and especially with the wildly successful kung fu genre, which he is largely credited with inventing — died on Tuesday at his home in Hong Kong. He was 106.
His company, Television Broadcasts Limited, announced his death in a statement.
Born in China, Mr. Shaw and his older brother, Run Me, were movie pioneers in Asia, producing and sometimes directing films and owning lucrative cinema chains. His companies are believed to have released more than 800 films worldwide.
After his brother’s death in 1985, Mr. Shaw expanded his interest in television and became a publishing and real estate magnate as well. For his philanthropy, much of it going to educational and medical causes, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II and showered with public expressions of gratitude by the Communist authorities in Beijing.
Mr. Shaw enjoyed the zany glamour of the Asian media world he helped create. He presided over his companies from a garish Art Deco palace in Hong Kong, a cross between a Hollywood mansion and a Hans Christian Andersen cookie castle. Well into his 90s he attended social gatherings with a movie actress on each arm. And he liked to be photographed in a tai chi exercise pose, wearing the black gown of a traditional mandarin.
Asked what his favorite films were, Mr. Shaw, a billionaire, once replied, “I particularly like movies that make money.”
Run Run Shaw was born Shao Yifu in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, in 1907. As a child, he moved to Shanghai, where his father ran a profitable textile business. According to some Hong Kong news media accounts, Run Run and Run Me were English-sounding nicknames the father gave his sons as part of a family joke that played on the similarity of the family name to the word rickshaw.
Evincing little interest in the family business, Run Run and Run Me turned instead to entertainment. The first play they produced was called “Man From Shensi,” on a stage, as it turned out, of rotten planks. As the brothers often told the story, on opening night the lead actor plunged through the planks, and the audience laughed. The Shaws took note and rewrote the script to include the incident as a stunt. They had a hit, and in 1924 they turned it into their first film.
After producing several more movies, the brothers decided that their homeland, torn by fighting between Nationalists and Communists, was too unstable. In 1927 they moved to Singapore, which was then part of British colonial Malaya.
Besides producing their own films in Singapore, the brothers imported foreign movies and built up a string of theaters. Their business boomed until the Japanese invaded the Malay Peninsula in 1941 and stripped their theaters and confiscated their film equipment. But according to Run Run Shaw, he and his brother buried more than $4 million in gold, jewelry and currency in their backyard, which they dug up after World War II and used to resume their careers.
With the rise of Hong Kong as the primary market for Chinese films, Run Run Shaw moved there in 1959, while his brother stayed behind looking after their Singapore business.
In Hong Kong, Run Run Shaw created Shaw Movietown, a complex of studios and residential towers where his actors worked and lived. Until then, the local industry had turned out 60-minute films with budgets that rarely exceeded a few thousand dollars. Shaw productions ran up to two hours and cost as much as $50,000 — a lavish sum by Asian standards at the time.
Mr. Shaw went on to plumb the so-called dragon-lady genre with great commercial success. Movies like “Madame White Snake” (1963) and “The Lady General” (1965) offered sexy, combative, sometimes villainous heroines, loosely based on historical characters. And by the end of the 1960s, he had discovered that martial-arts films in modern settings could make even more money.
His “Five Fingers of Death” (1973), considered a kung fu classic, was followed by “Man of Iron” (1973), “Shaolin Avenger” (1976) and many others. Critics dismissed the films as artless and one-dimensional, but spectators crowded into the theaters to cheer, laugh or mockingly hiss at the action scenes. To ensure that his films were amply distributed, Mr. Shaw’s chain of cinemas grew to more than 200 houses in Asia and the United States. “We were like the Hollywood of the 1930s,” he said. “We controlled everything: the talent, the production, the distribution and the exhibition.”
Other Hong Kong producers, directors and actors called Mr. Shaw’s methods iron-fisted. In 1970, Raymond Chow, a producer with Mr. Shaw’s company, Shaw Brothers, left to form his own company, Golden Harvest, which gave more creative and financial independence to top directors and stars.
Mr. Chow’s biggest success, and Mr. Shaw’s most notable loss, was his decision to bankroll Bruce Lee. Mr. Lee initially approached Shaw Brothers, which turned down his demand for a long-term contract of $10,000 per film. Golden Harvest then offered Mr. Lee creative control and profit-sharing.
“The Big Boss,” better known as “Fists of Fury” (1971), was Mr. Lee’s first film with Golden Harvest, and it broke all Hong Kong box-office records. Other big-name actors and directors flocked to Golden Harvest, breaking Shaw Brothers’ virtual monopoly.
But Run Run Shaw had already expanded beyond the film industry. His investments in the new phenomenon of Asian television were to prove even more lucrative than his movie productions. In 1972 he began Television Broadcasts (TVB), and he soon gained control of 80 percent of the Hong Kong market. TVB churned out 12 hours of its own programming a day, much of it soap operas and costume dramas that riveted Chinese television viewers on the mainland and throughout Southeast Asia.
As his fortune grew, Mr. Shaw donated generously to hospitals, orphanages and colleges in Hong Kong, for which he was awarded the Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1974 and a knighthood in 1977. In 1990 he donated 10 million pounds to help establish the Run Run Shaw Institute of Chinese Affairs at Oxford University, where his four children had studied. In 2004 he established the Shaw Prize, an international award for research in astronomy, mathematics and medicine. As Hong Kong’s days as a British colony dwindled, Mr. Shaw stepped up his philanthropy in China. He contributed more than $100 million to scores of universities on the mainland and raised money in support of Chinese victims of floods and other natural disasters. Chinese leaders toasted him for his generosity at banquets in Beijing.
Mr. Shaw’s philanthropy did not extend to the United States, but he was once viewed as a white knight in New York. In 1991, when Macy’s was on the verge of bankruptcy, he bought 10 percent of its preferred shares for $50 million, becoming one of the largest shareholders in R. H. Macy & Company.
The investment had a personal aspect. Ten years earlier, Mitchell Finkelstein, the son of Macy’s chief executive, Edward S. Finkelstein, had married Hui Ling, a Shaw protégée who appeared in many of his movies. Mr. Shaw met the older Finkelstein at the wedding, and they became friends.
In later years, the aging mogul himself seemed in need of help to keep his media empire intact. Concerned with the rise of cable and satellite television, he sold a 22 percent stake in TVB to Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation in 1993.
Mr. Shaw had intended to maintain control over his media business by balancing his one-third share in TVB against Mr. Murdoch’s 22 percent and the 24 percent held by Robert Kuok, one of Hong Kong’s richest entrepreneurs. But the balance of power shifted when Mr. Murdoch sold his equity to Mr. Kuok shortly afterward. Then, in 1996, in Hong Kong’s first case of a hostile takeover, Mr. Kuok forced Mr. Shaw to sell him his shares in TVE, the lucrative publishing, music and real estate subsidiary of TVB. The deal reduced Mr. Shaw’s TVB stake to 23 percent.
Mr. Shaw’s business situation was also hindered by his inability to groom credible successors. His sons, Vee Meng and Harold, were at one time heavily involved in the family enterprises, but their relationship with him had become strained.
Even after turning 90, Mr. Shaw maintained a powerful presence in the Hong Kong film world through his control of Shaw Studios. But a newer generation of independent producers came to dominate the Hong Kong market with their own violent brand of police and gangster films.
For those who want to take photos of the former Dalit theatre (now TOUCH Community Theatre), now is the last time do so as demolition will start on Monday 13 January, 2014 after its last church services on Saturday (11 Jan.) and Sunday (12 Jan.).
Shaw the Malay film industry pioneer
Run Run Shaw set up a Malay studio in Singapore where more than 150 movies were made
The Straits Times
Published on Jan 09, 2014
Even as the late Sir Run Run Shaw is being hailed by movie lovers for his lasting legacy to Chinese cinema, there is a less well-known contribution the film-and-TV mogul should be remembered for – his impact on the Malay film industry.
As prominent Singaporean lyricist and film researcher Yusnor Ef, 76, says: “Without Run Run Shaw, there would not be a Malay film industry here today.
“If it were not for him, we would not be able to even dream about having a Malay film industry now.”
The legendary Mr Shaw, who had built an entertainment empire through the Shaw studio and later broadcaster TVB over an eight-decade career, died on Tuesday morning. He was 106.
In 1947, he set up Malay Film Productions, a studio that would go on to produce more than 150 Malay films during the post-war period. Most prominent were the films featuring legendary actor-director P.Ramlee, who starred in 42 films and directed 16, all done at the studio located at No. 8 Jalan Ampas.
Yusnor says: “Even today, tourists from Malaysia will go to the location and take pictures of it. Even though the studio no longer exists, the building is there and they want to see for themselves the birthplace of all these wonderful films.”
Local film-maker Abdul Nizam Abdul Hamid, 47, says that Mr Shaw’s biggest contribution to the Malay film industry was his faith and belief in the talents of Malay entertainment icon P. Ramlee.
“He agreed to let P. Ramlee direct his first movie, Penarik Beca, in 1955 because he could see that Ramlee was more than just an actor and singer. They became quite close, Run Run would take him along to film festivals overseas and he would pretty much approve whatever projects Ramlee wanted to work on.”
Some of the most beloved P. Ramlee films include Huah Tuah (1956), Musang Berjanggut (The Bearded Fox, 1959) and Madu Tiga (The Three Wives, 1964). To this day, the actor is widely considered an icon of Malay arts and entertainment.
Yusnor says: “Run Run Shaw and his brother Runme had already been doing a lot with Chinese films, producing and distributing them. “Then, they started with Malay films because they saw potential in Malay films. Run Run Shaw saw the potential.”
Malay Film Productions shut down in 1967 as Kuala Lumpur became the new Malay film hub after Shaw Organisation set up Merdeka Film Productions studio there. P.Ramlee also relocated there and made several more films with the studio in Kuala Lumpur before it closed shop in 1977. Recalling the old days, Yusnor says that he still considers the movies produced during that era to be the best in Malay cinema.
“Today, a lot of Malay films rely on technology and there is a lot of ‘boom’ here and ‘boom’ there. But the Shaw Brothers’ Malay films were done with real heart.”
Still, it is probably the classic wuxia films that are synonymous with the Shaw name. During the 1960s, the Shaw studio made more than 40 titles a year and popularised the gongfu genre in the West with movies such as Five Fingers Of Death (1972) and The One-armed Swordsman (1967), which turned Wang Yu into a superstar.
Veteran getai performer Wang Lei, 52, estimates that he had watched “nine out of 10” Shaw Brothers’ wuxia films.
Rattling off a string of titles including Five Shaolin Masters (1974) and Come Drink With Me (1966), he recalls fondly: “Every time the iconic Shaw Brothers’ logo and theme music came on before the movie commenced, I would grab my siblings’ hands in excitement because I knew that it’d be something good.
“These movies were talked about by audiences in the West as well. It was Run Run Shaw who made international audiences sit up and notice Chinese films. He was a great, great man.”
Of course, Mr Shaw’s impact goes well beyond film production. He also opened theatres around town as well as amusement parks such as Kim Seng Road’s Great World. Home-grown film-maker Kelvin Tong, 40, who made a movie about the Great World Amusement Park in his nostalgic film It’s A Great Great World (2011), says of the now-defunct place: “A lot of stories, memories, experiences and romances happened there. Thus, it was a great setting for a Singapore film.
“In many ways, my tribute to the Great World Amusement Park is also a valentine to the Shaws’ foresight in building an amusement park to which everybody from millionaires to trishaw cyclists flocked.”
Veteran actor Chen Shucheng, 64, recalls with a chuckle how he used to skip school so that he could go to the Sky Theatre at Great World to catch a film. “My friends and I would cycle there together secretly and watch Shaw Brothers’ movies. We couldn’t take a bus because we wanted to save money to buy a drink later on.
“But the bad thing was that because we were sweating so much from the cycling and then sitting in freezing air- conditioning during the movie, I ended up falling very sick one time. That was when my father discovered I was playing truant. I reformed after that. You could say that the Shaw Brothers also helped to make me a better person,” he says with a laugh.
Tong adds that Mr Shaw’s legacy is also the fact that he has influenced moviegoers’ taste in film to this day. He says: “His earliest instinct for ghost movies, musicals and gongfu flicks can be deeply felt in present-day mainstream Singaporean, Hong Kong and Malaysian cinema.
“This, I think, is his most enduring legacy – his Midas touch informing audience’s taste in cinema even today.”
The Cathay building’s “redevelopment” was truly a crime against the nation. I recall the businesspeople behind this exercise telling the media “there is more than one way to remember a building”, which was ominous enough. But let’s call a spade a spade: SE Asia’s first skyscraper. Witness to volumes in wartime history. Symbol of the golden age of Singapore/Malay cinema and all its glamour. Not to mention a stunning Art Deco structure – a style which is once again all the rage and a tourism magnet the world over. Now turned into a non-descript glass-and-steel box visually, and a doppelganger of Plaza Singapura next door functionally. WTF!
P.S. Thanks for clarifying about the Golden Mile cinema interior photo. I went there about 10 years ago to watch a Tinto Brass film (anything uncensored, even erotica, is a breath of fresh air in Singapore), and marvelled at the elegant cavernous halls, straight out of an episode of ‘Poirot’. It would be great if someone could add a photo to this article.
Thanks for the wonderful walk down memory lane. The photograph of Roxy Theatre looks earlier than the 1960s. Anyone with other photographs of Roxy Theatre?
Thank you for the article. Brings back quite a bit of memories.
Just wanted to add: Yi-Lung Cinema was formerly the Kent Theatre which served the British forces stationed here before their withdrawal. Its actual location was at the junction of Dover Road and Clementi Road, next to the then Warren Golf Club clubhouse. It also had its own bowling alley.
I suspect that if you approach the present Warren Golf & Country Club, they might have some old photos of their original clubhouse that would show the Kent Theatre.
3 cinemas were not actually mentioned and may have certainly been missed out:-a) Bright Cinema (Upper Paya Lebar Road where Kapo Factory is now) Joo Chiat Open Air cinema- Somewhere in between Onan Road and Joo Chiat Road and finally Canberra Cinema somewhere in Sembawang showing Hindi / Indian movies
Just wanted to share an interesting fact with cinema and movie lovers, especially the younger generation. Before the arrival of cineplexes, movie houses in Singapore were stand alone buildings and beside the city and Orchard areas, Bedok and Ang Mo Kio had the most number of screens with 5 each.
Bedok had the Bedok cinema, Changi cinema, Liwagu cinema and the Raja and Princess cinemas.
Ang Mo Kio had Broadway cinema, Jubilee cinema, Ang Mo Kio cinema and the New Town and New Crown cinemas.
With the exception of Margaret Drive which had 3 cinemas namely Venus, Golden City and Queenstown cinemas, all other estates had only 1 or 2 cinemas in their neighbourhood.
Sadly none of the above are around today.
My mum used to sell Rojak and my aunt sold Satay BeeHoon at Kok Wah Cinema in the 1970s, wonders if anyone had any impression………
A make-shift advertisement banner showing the upcoming Chinese action movie “Lackey and the Lady Tiger” at Sin Wah Theatre. It was placed at the side of an oven at an old temple at Upper Bukit Timah Road. 1980s
(Photo credit: Ronni Pinsler)
Are there any photos of Peking Theatre at Lorong Bakar Batu in 1960’s?
The entry on Peking Theatre is incorrect. It was situated at Lorong Bakar Batu, not at Pipit Road. I used to live at the next lane, Genting Lane, and watched movies at Peking Theatre since primary school days, adult ticket was 50 cents, children ticket 30 cents. Most memorable movies were Liu San Jie, The 3 Stooges and Tarzen.
Thank’s for the information this is really good, Im searching about old Singapore movie theater. Thanks alot. Pls post if any of you have photos of the theater.
Hi SL Chua I used to leave at Tannery Lane from 1973 till 1980, I think the Peking Cinema must have been torn down by then.
Olden cinemas are the best, now multiplexes dont have the same atmosphere.
Hi thanks for the good job. I am just curious that according to my dad, Peking Cinema is actually located along Lorong Bakar Batu, but he is too old to recall the exact location , I believe could be behind the existing Singpost? Anyone can give more info on this ? If can post Photos of Peking cinema would be great.
Cinema Buff, Francis
Thanks, I have been looking around for any pics of Peking Theatre… non so far.
Hi SL Chua, Thanks for sharing! Any idea where was Peking Theatre exactly located ? I heard from my dad is along a lane, near the Singapore Post. He is too old to recall the exact location.
Francis , movie buff, cinema buff
The Queen’s at Geylang Lorong 40 that used to attract many Malay movie fans
(Photo credit: Facebook Group “On a little street in Singapore”)
Founder of Eng Wah Global, Mr Goh Eng Wah Dies at Age 92
September 6, 2015
The founder, and Executive Chairman of Eng Wah Global, Mr Goh Eng Wah passed away on 5 September 2015 at the age of 92.
Mr Goh Eng Wah was an illustrious entrepreneur who pioneered the cinema industry of Singapore in both film distribution and exhibition. Spanning 70 years, his entertainment empire included the management of several iconic entertainment businesses in post-war Singapore such as Happy Theatre, Victory Theatre in Gay World, Silver World Theatre which eventually led to his management of Happy World.
A pioneering film producer, Mr Goh played an integral role in the cinema history of Cantonese films in Hong Kong. The company has since expanded into one of the major Singaporean brands and Mr Goh was recognised for his contribution towards Singapore earlier this year as a recipient of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCCI) SG50 Outstanding Chinese Business Pioneers Award.
Very interesting post and comments! One small correction: Hollywood cinema was used by City Harvest Church and not His Sanctuary. Here is a blog post about Hollywood cinema:
I too well remember the Kent Cinema and Bowling Alley at the end of Dover Road (up a bit from the Royal Signals / REME Officers Mess – now an International School – and the Dover Road Swimming Pool). I think a lot of the MOR children from Clementi Estate used to go there as well as the Brit families but its greatest advantage for us was the midnight show which gave us the chance to snooze off the excesses of the evening in wonderful airconditioning (whish we didn’t have anywhere else). Happy Days indeed!
Meanwhile, in Hong Kong…..
Inside the Fight to Save Hong Kong’s Last Movie Palace
3/14/2016 by Patrick Brzeski
As this year’s 40th anniversary of the Hong Kong International Film Festival attests, Hong Kong has one of Asia’s richest histories of moviegoing. But even though the Hong Kong film industry’s production prowess lives on — local director Stephen Chow’s latest comedy The Mermaid recently grossed a record-smashing $500 million in mainland China — most of the city’s monuments to its cinematic heritage have been erased.
“A lot of the great old cinemas of Hong Kong have been relegated to the dustbin of history,” says Haider Kikabhoy, an architectural history researcher at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Just one post-war movie theater still stands, the State Theatre in the neighborhood of North Point — and this once majestic movie palace is now threatened by private developers.
“This is a place that evokes a lot of fond memories for people of Hong Kong,” says Kikabhoy. “If it’s demolished, it will be very sad — in a way, it’s the last vestige of Hong Kong entertainment history from the midcentury.”
In 1950s Hong Kong, cinema was king. Television had yet to colonize living rooms, and nearly every neighborhood in the city had its own stand-alone movie theater. Hong Kong was emerging from the privations of the World War II era, and the city was starting to boom again. Competition in the narrow entertainment market was particularly fierce, leading local impresarios to build ever grander theaters to attract ticket buyers. “It speaks to the optimism of the era,” says Kikabhoy.
Into this milieu appeared Harry Odell, a legendary Hong Kong character who was born to Russian-Jewish parents in Cairo and spent a colorful youth as a professional tap dancer in Nagasaki, Japan, later fighting for the U.S. in World War I in France before ultimately settling in Hong Kong, where he married a wealthy socialite and launched a local film distribution business. In a 1952 business expansion effort, Odell unveiled the Empire Theatre in North Point.
Local coverage and advertisements at the time describe the theater as “gigantic,” with a 56-foot cinema screen, a ceiling “cut in the shape of a diamond,” gold velvet curtains and walls that are “floodlit in blue, red and green.” Surveying the completed project on the eve of its opening — which featured the gala premiere of Paramount’s latest musical, Just for You, starring Bing Crosby and Jane Wyman — Odell told the South China Morning Post, “I emphasize that this is not just another theater.”
The theater’s name was later changed to the State Theatre in 1959, and it continued to operate up until 1997, hosting local film premieres and stage shows by international performers, including the late British tenor Peter Pears, the Katherine Dunham Company and the late Taiwanese pop superstar Teresa Teng.
Since its projectors went dark, the cinema has fallen into semi-disrepair. The complex now contains a shabby shopping mall, a snooker club and over 200 small residential flats. Over the past year, local developer New World Development has begun buying up the apartments, leading local conservationists to suspect that the company plans to take over and demolish the building to make way for one of the office towers it is known for erecting throughout the city.
According to records from the Antiquities Advisory Board, the government body that assesses and grades historic buildings for preservation status, the State Theatre has been on the board’s list of buildings in need of review since September. Kikabhoy and his colleagues are urging the board to take immediate action.
“There’s an official acknowledgement that the building may be valuable, but there is no indication of when they will make a decision,” he says. “That means the building has no status. If someone acquires it now, they can tear it down without issue.”
Through a heritage walking tours company he co-founded in 2013 called Walk in Hong Kong, Kikabhoy and his allies produced an independent analysis of the theater’s architectural, social and cultural value. Architecturally, the building is believed to be valuable because of the striking concrete parabolic trusses on its roof, which were a midcentury innovation used to suspend the ceiling from above, allowing for an expansive, pillar-less auditorium space.
“There is no other building in Hong Kong that has adopted reinforced concrete external parabolic trusses,” says Dr. Lee Ho-yin, director of the University of Hong Kong’s architectural conservation program, one of six experts consulted for the report. “As far as I know, it is very likely to be one of a kind in Asia.”
The local activists’ ultimate vision for the State Theatre is preservation, followed by a revival. The conservationists envision a mixed-use venue showing a program of new independent film and local genre classics, along with making the space available for stage and musical performances, as it once was.
“One of Hong Kong’s leading distributors has expressed interest to me privately in running the theater again, if it can be revived,” says Kikabhoy. “If the theater can get Grade 1 conservation status, reviving it would make a lot of sense. It could be a spectacularly cool landmark, catering to the cultural interests and needs of our community.”
Huge thanks to Remember Singapore – I have wallowed in nostalgia here for several hours, actually most of a whole day now! That is a superb original article for which you deserve enormous credit.
I was a very impressionable ten-year old when I arrived in magical Singapore in 1954. At some point in that year, I am fairly sure that the Cathay Cinema showed “White Christmas”. My unreliable recollection, now over 60 years later, is that the billboards claimed it was a “World Premiere”. That does not seem remotely possible for an American film, but there WAS something special about the advertising for that particular movie at that particular time. It occurs to me that the specialness might have been that it was the world’s first showing of that particular film in the then new “Vista Vision”, but after many hours, now possibly days(!) of poking around, I can’t confirm or clarify any real facts at all. I wonder if anyone else can dig up more detail than I have managed?
Incidentally, I never got to see it at the Cathay then or anywhere else until 2014,when I caught it on TV, with an astoundingly crisp digital re-coding!
My over-riding recollection of the Pavilion Cinema is that there was NEVER any air conditioning operational and it was hell in there! Of course, after being broiled once or twice, it was very much a last resort to go and watch anything there, so it might have had operating air-conditioning some of the time, just not my time!. The last movie I saw at the Pavilion would have been “Oklahoma” in late 1956 or early 1957.
In sixty years, some of the drastically changed street mapping, combined with such unreliably ancient memories has made making sense of Google Maps extremely difficult for me. I’m wondering if the present day Cathay Cineleisure (Orchard) at 8 Grange Rd might actually be occupying the space where the Pavilion used to be?
Thanks again, Remember SIngapore – that was great!
The Cathay Cineleisure spot used to be the Orchard Theatre, which was also home to the famous Jackies Bowl. The Pavilion cinema is the spot where the Specialist Centre / Hotel Phoenix once stood which is a stones throw from the former Orchard Theatre.
By the way it was reported that the Orchard Theatre building was the first in Singapore to have an escalator, which took you to the cinema hall.
what are the names of the cinemas before 1942
06 December 2005
１９２５ 年，新加坡邵氏兄弟影片公司创办人之一邵仁枚由上海到新加坡，他带去了上海天一青年影片公司（２）摄制的三部影片，希望能在当地戏院（３） 播放这些影片以牟取利润，但是由于邵氏兄弟来自不同的方言族群，和当地院商缺乏沟通的平台，再加上又受到远在上海的六合影业公司有计划的排挤。
邵仁枚的设想因为受到阻挠，唯有另谋出路，最终以２０００ 元的高价向当地一位宁波籍的孔姓商人租了一座位于丹戎巴葛，名为“华英”的戏院，（４）在那里专门播放由天一青年影片公司摄制的无声电影。在播映影片的业 务上了轨道之后，邵逸夫也来到了新加坡，兄弟两人在当地设立了新的影片公司，名为海星影片公司。（５ ） 事实上，在邵氏兄弟来新加坡设立院线播映影片之前，当地已经有两大影片公司，那就是由王宣化设立的南洋影片公司和黄敬一负责的南海影片公司。（６）
２０ 年代的新加坡已经有相当多间戏院在运作，（７） 但它们所播映的绝大多数都是由美国进口的影片。 有 声电影大概于２０ 年代中期之后来到新加坡。按照邵氏的记载：有声电影是１９２５年第一次在新加坡上映，片名为《如果我有一张会说话的相片》（Ｉｆ Ｉ ｈａｖｅ ａ ｔａｌｋｉｎｇ ｐｉｃｔｕｒｅ ｏｆ ｙｏｕ），由查尔斯·法罗（Ｃｈａｒｌｅｓ Ｆａｒｒｏｗ）和珍妮特·佳诺（Ｊａｎｅｔ Ｇａｙｎｏ） 主演。
国泰机构方面的档案则 （８）显示在１９２７年于新加坡维多利亚音乐厅（９）播放的《爵士歌手》（Ｔｈｅ Ｊａｚｚ Ｓｉｎｇｅｒ） 才是新加坡有史以来第一部（１０）播放的有声电影。（１１）无论如何，有声电影基本上就是从这时开始数量日益增加，也逐渐普遍，但必须注意的是，这些电影都是从外国进口的，(１２） 没有任何一部是当地影业公司摄制的作品。
１９３３ 年是新加坡电影发展史上重要的一年，这一年由必·埃斯·拉詹斯（Ｂ．Ｓ．Ｒａｊｈａｎｓ） 执导的《疯狂的（１４）莱拉》（Ｌａｉｌａ Ｍａｊｎｕｎ，１９３３） 推出新加坡市场。这是（１５）一部由外地摄制人员执导，在当地取景，以新加坡出色歌艺人才为主要演员的马来语影片，被认为是第一部新加坡本土制作的电影。影片由一间设在印度孟 买的化学公司出品。
《疯狂的莱拉》成为新加坡本土电影的先锋。影片的内容主要是叙述一对恋人因受到各自家庭的反对而不能在一起的故事，全剧由当地马来艺人 负责演出，电影推出之后虽然没有创下惊人的业绩，但邵氏兄弟却从中看出马来语影片市场里的商机。他们从上海和香港引进了拍摄器材和技术人员，建立了自己的 制片厂， 并从１９３７年开始 （１６）在新加坡从事马来语影片的制作。影片的种类包括：家庭伦理片、爱情故事片和恐怖片等等。（１７）
但是提摩太·威特（Ｔｉｍｏｔｈｙ Ｗｈｉｔｅ）却有不同的（１８）见解，他对这段历史作了以下的概括：“邵氏和国泰，尤其是在早期，印度导演把已经在印 度制作好的电影重拍，演员由新加坡人代替，对白改为马来语，但是剧本大体上没有更动。虽然这些影片是改编的，但是由于影片中有歌有舞，所以很受当地观众的 欢迎。”（１９）
这时期的观众所观赏的电影，大多数都不是以当地题材为蓝本的影片。这可以从相关统计数字中显出来：一直到１９４２ 年前夕，在新加坡的戏院里上映的影片当中只有１３％属中文影片，来自美国和英国的影片分别占了７０％和１６％。（２０） １９３９年，以陆运涛为首的国泰戏院开幕后，新加坡影业逐成两家分庭抗礼的局面。
第二次世界大战的爆发使得新加坡刚上轨道的电影业受到了严重的打击。在日 本占领新加坡期间，尤其是从１９４３ 年开始，马来亚和新加坡只允许播映日本制作的影片。尽管这些影片明显地是日本官方用来进行政治宣传的媒介，但按甄志安的观察，当时的观众似乎还相当喜欢这些影片。 （２１）
威特认为，这些由在日本本土和被日军占领的东南亚国家的制片厂所制作的日资电影，如：《全面攻打新加坡》（Ｓｈｉｎｇａｐｏｒｕ Ｓｏｋｏｇｅｋｉ，１９４３）和《马来之虎》（Ｍａｒｅｉ ｎｏ Ｔｏｒａ，１９４３），“……在风格上和日据时期的日军所谴责的好莱坞影片差别不大…… 因为日本电影受美国影片影响很大。”日本电影人也把他们的动画片引进东南亚，如《画册１９３６：桃太郎对米奇老鼠》（Ｐｉｃｔｕｒｅ Ｂｏｏｋ １９３６：Ｍｏｍｏｔａｒｏ ｖｓ ＭｉｃｋｅｙＭｏｕｓｅ，１９４２）和《桃太郎的海鹰》（Ｍｏｍｏｔａｒｏ’ｓ Ｓｅａ Ｅａｇｌｅ，１９４２）等。
日军投降，马来亚光复后，新加坡本土电影工业死灰复燃。由当地富商聚资成立了中华电影制片厂，（２２） 拍摄了当地第一部华语电影《华侨血泪》。这是一部黑白电影，内容主要是描述在日据期间，华人在当地所受的苦难，影片中所有角色都由当地职业艺人（２３）扮 演。
而国泰影片公司与邵氏兄弟一样，也在新加坡开设了自己的制片厂，专门制作马来语影片。国泰影片公司的马来语影片以类型片为主，而且多数以马来神话和传说为故事题材来源，与邵氏的情节剧有异曲同工之妙。在双方竞争激烈的情况下，新加坡本土电影工业呈现出一片欣荣的景象，造就了许多研究者所谓的新加坡马来电影的黄金时期的说法。（３０） 这种繁荣景象一直持续到６０ 年代初期。
另一方面，在二战结束后，当地商人何亚禄（３１）也在新加坡筹组了一间影片公司，开始时公司名为丽玛影片公司（Ｒｉｍａｕ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｐｒｏｄｕｃｔｉｏｎｓ），后来改名为克丽斯影片公司（Ｋｅｒｉｓ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｐｒｏｄｕｃｔｉｏｎｓ）， 并在１９５３年与陆运涛商议 （３２）联合设立国泰克里斯影片公司。（３３） 在这之前，丽玛影片公司已在国泰机构的资助下拍摄了当地第一部马来语影片（Ｂｕｌｏｈ Ｐｅｒｉｎｄｕ，１９５３）。（３４） １９６０ 年，国泰克里斯影片公司耗资十万元摄制了一部华语电影《狮子城》（Ｌｉｏｎ Ｃｉｔｙ，１９６０），这是一部穷家女爱上富家少爷的爱情故事片，由当地艺术工作者易水负责执导。为了能更好地摄制这部影片，国泰克里斯影片公司还特地为了挑选剧本而组织了剧本编导委员会，为了选择合适演员甚至组织了工作队伍到马来半岛去面试艺人，（３５）影片动用到的主要演员有４０人，临时演员达２００多人。
随着电视时代在 １９６３ 年的到来和观众口味的改变，当地电影工业面临了观众需求量下降，资讯和人才因为新加坡１９６５ 年宣布独立而不能像先前那样在马来亚和新加坡之间自由流动等问题，给当地电影事业的发展带来了巨大的困累。 １９６７年和１９７２ 年，邵氏兄弟的马来亚电影制作公司和陆运涛的国泰影片公司分别结束了在当地的制片厂，(３６）退出了在当地摄制影片的制作行列，但令人玩味的是７０年代中桥机构（３７）的设立。这家原来计划每年摄制３部电影的影片制作公司虽然在拍摄了 ３ 部电影就停止摄制工作，但在当时那种萧条的情况下，能有这样的成绩叫人不得不刮目相看。
中桥机构聘用了来自香港的影片摄制人才分别拍摄了《一家之主》（Ｍａｓｔｅｒ ｏｆ ｔｈｅ ａｍｉｌｙ）；《荒唐世家》（Ｆａｍｉｌｙ Ｄｅｇｅｎｒａｔｉｏｎ）（３８）和以新加坡为题材的《桥的两岸》（Ｔｈｅ Ｔｗｏ ｓｉｄｅｓ ｏｆ ｔｈｅ Ｂｒｉｄｇｅ，１９７６）３部影片，其中《桥的两岸》最引人注意。在接下来的几年，虽然也出现了一些独立的电影制作人拍摄了一些符合大众口味的本土电影，如：《他们叫她埃及妖后》（Ｔｈｅｙ ｃａｌｌｅｄ ｈｅｒ ＣｌｅｏｐａｔｒａＷｏｎｇ，１９７８），甚至还有香港式的武打片《无敌小金》（Ｄｙｎａｍｉｔｅ Ｊｏｈｎｓｏｎ ，１９７８），但由于这些影片的题材并不能真实地反映出新加坡的现实情况，同时又不具备当地的文化色彩，因此不能引起当地观众的共鸣。
威特认为尽管７０ 年代的观众或许觉得这些影片有趣，但那是因为这些影片的风格夸张、好笑，而不是因为这些影片表现的是真实的当地文化。 在这段新加坡电影发展的过程当中，有几个值得留意的特点。
首先，新加坡观众对当地制作电影的需求量低。 在新加坡电影业最蓬勃的时期，按照电影检查局１９５３ 年的记录显示，那一年送交审查的剧情片共有７８３部，当中多数进口自英国，美国，香港和印度。（３９） 在电影检查局１９５４ 年报告中的数据显示，那年当地制作的电影有１９部，进口的香港电影有１８１部，印度电影有１４５部，英国电影有５１部，美国电影有２７０部。 接下来的几年，（４０）当地制作的数量不断下滑。虽然单从这些数字并不一定能准确反映新加坡观众对本土电影的支持程度，但却可以十分肯定地说当时的观众对外国影片，尤其是美国影片的需求量是很大的。但不论促成这个趋势的原因是什么，新加坡的电影观众对外国影片的惯性依赖和需求却是从一开始就养成了，这形成了新加坡电影缺乏当地特色和草根性质。
所以尽管５０ 年代新加坡的电影观众观看电影的人均次数与香港不相上下；（４１）直到１９７１年，单在这一年，到戏院去观赏电影的新加坡人就有 ２８００ 万人次！（４２） 但这么庞大的观众群并不能给予当地电影事业的发展带来任何形式的帮助！这个极度依赖外国影片的问题始终困扰着当地的电影制作人，至今依然如此。
其次，新加坡电影工业对外来人才和投资的依赖性过高。 推动当地电影工业的邵氏兄弟和陆运涛都不是新加坡人，他们在新加坡设立戏院和拍摄电影都是以商业利益为考量。他们从香港、中国、印度和菲律宾等地引进技术人员来协助当地影片的制作，但自始至终都没有为当地培养一批能独当一面的电影技术人员，以致邵氏和国泰时期的 当地电影业一直存在缺乏专业电影从业员的现象。
随着邵氏机构和国泰机构相继停止在新加坡拍摄影片，当地的电影制作也随之逐渐消亡。虽然基础性的硬件 设施没有随着邵氏、国泰和一些独立制作人的离开而消 失，但是很多电影从业员却随着当地公司的两大电影制作 场的关闭而离开新加坡。这给当地电影业的发展带来了严 重的人才短缺问题。从１９８０—１９９０年这１０年间，新加坡电影的发展步伐基本上是停滞的。这些因素都直接或间接 地形成了１９８０ 年末重整新加坡电影事业的阻力。
最后，新加坡政府在国家建设的过程中，并没有考虑 到文化艺术的建设，更不必说要发展国内的电影艺术。 新加坡于１９６５ 年正式和马来亚分家，取得独立，成 为新加坡共和国。政治上，这绝对是一个重要的分水岭， 因为它标志着一个新的时代和政治体系开始。
在建国初期，根据《李光耀回忆录１９６５—２０００》中披露，这个时 期的新加坡首先必须争取世界各国承认她的独立，其次是巩固国防，最后也是最让新加坡政府深感棘手的就是重建经济，这是新政府的三个当务之急，（４３） 对于艺术文化活 动自然无暇兼顾。尤其是电影事业，原本就没有在新加坡扎下过任何基础，同时又处在这种无意的压抑情况，发展步伐更是举步艰难！再加上自 ６０ 年代以来，当地的政治局势动荡不安（４４） 和电影公司及独立制片人的纷纷退出，更是受到严重打击。
１９８７年，新加坡政府的文化政策有了显著的调整。在这一年，经济发展局成立了一个“推动电影事业委员会”（Ｃｏｍｍｉｔｔｅｅ ｆｏｒ ｔｈｅ Ｐｒｏｍｏｔｉｏｎ ｏｆ Ｍｏｔｉｏｎ Ｐｉｃｔｕｒｅ Ｉｎｄｕｓｔｒｙ）掌管当地的电影事业，新加坡电影基本上从这时才逐渐开始摆脱困境。
１９９１年，新加坡政府在当地的国际电影节的闭幕仪式上宣布，有关当局将会拨款１００万元来推动电影工业；并在５年内颁发３０万新元的奖学金给有志于电影事 业的新加坡人。 事实上，这一计划的提出是新加坡政府对当时香港将于１９９７ 年回归中国的反应。当时新加坡政府相信，
在这部电影之后，新加坡制作的电影再次登上大银幕已经是４年之后的事了。１９９５年，香港导演杨凡执导的《三画二情郎》 （４６） 和新加坡邱金海导演的《麵薄仔》为新加坡电影的发展开拓了全新的局面。 （１）吴华《狮城掌故》，收录于《南洋文摘》第１３ 卷，第７期（总１５１ 期），新加坡南洋文摘社 １９７２ 年７ 月２０ 日，第４７７ 页。 （２）很多著作都把邵氏在上海设立的影片公司称为“天一影片公司”，事实上，根据新加坡国立大学中央图书馆所藏的微缩胶卷（编号：ＺＲ０９２１３）上显示：邵仁枚在新加坡所设立的海星影片公司曾出版一本宣传刊物《海星》报，在这份刊物上的电影广告上，注明的都是“天一青年影片公司”，而不是“天一影片公司”，这一点值得研究邵氏电影公司的学者注意。 （３）
在东南亚以及港台一带把放映电影的场所称为戏院，这些场所绝少用于其他形式的舞台演出。 （４）有些书籍把这间戏院的中文译名定为“皇朝戏院”，这是受 Ｔｈｅ Ｅｍｐｉｒｅ这个英文名字的影响所致，但这显然是错误的，根据天一青年影片公司的宣传资料显示：这间戏院的中文院名为华英戏院。这间戏院的观众座位只设没靠背板凳和简陋椅子，门票分为 ５ 角和７ 角半两种。 （５）海星影片公司是邵氏兄弟在当地设立的第一家影片公司，是邵氏机构的前身。 （６）廖金凤等编著《邵氏影视帝国》，台湾麦田出版社２００３ 年版，第４８－４９页。 （７）根据由傅无闷、郁树锟等人编著的《南洋年鉴》，当时在新加坡早已有为数众多的戏院在运作，新加坡第一间戏院是设立于１９０４ 年，名为较为人所知的有：东方戏院，华英戏院，好莱坞戏院等，新加坡南洋商报出版部 １９３９ 年版，第１９９－２０１页。 （８）（１７）见 ｈｔｔｐ：／／ｗｗｗ．ｓｈｏｗ．ｃｏｍ．ｓｇ／ｓｈａｗｓｔｏｒｙ／ｓｈａｗｓｔｏｒｙ．Ｈｔｍ。 （９）
直到６０年代末，在新加坡国家剧场（Ｎａｔｉｏｎａｌ Ｔｈｅａｔｒｅ ｏｆ Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ）正式投入服务之前，位于新加坡河畔的维多利亚音乐厅（Ｖｉｃｔｏｒｉａ Ｃｏｎｃｅｒｔ Ｈａｌｌ）一直是当地最重要的演出场所。 （１０）根据老一辈电影从业人员所提供的信息：这部影片是以留声机的器具，配合剧情，一边以播映机播放影片，另一边则用留声机播放相关录音盘中的录音，严格上来说这部影片并不能算是正式的有声电影。 （１１）Ｌｉｍ， Ｋａｙ Ｔｏｎｇ． Ｃａｔｈａｙ： ５５ ｙｅａｒｓ ｏｆ Ｃｉｎｅｍａ． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ： Ｌａｎｄ－ｍａｒｋ Ｂｏｏｋｓ Ｐｔｅ Ｌｔｄ， １９９１．１４． （１２）有另一个说法：认为新加坡第一部有声电影是在 １９２９ 年，同样是在维多利亚音乐厅播放，片名为《沉睡的山谷》（Ｓｌｅｅｐｙ Ｖａｌｌｅｙ）。 （１３）
傅无闷、郁树锟等人编著《南洋年鉴》，新加坡南洋商报出版部１９３９年版，第 １９９－２０１ 页。 （１４）必·埃斯·拉詹斯，印度籍导演，在新加坡电影发展史上属于最成功的先锋性人物，１９４５ 年到１９５５ 年之间执导超过 ２０ 部以上的马来语电影。 （１５）Ｕｈｄｅ， Ｊａｎ ａｎｄ Ｙｖｏｎｎｅ Ｎｇ Ｕｈｄｅ． Ｌａｔｅｎｔ Ｉｍａｇｅｓ： Ｆｉｌｍ ｉｎ Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ．Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ： Ｏｘｆｏｒｄ Ｕｎｉｖｅｒｓｉｔｙ Ｐｒｅｓｓ Ｐｔｅ Ｌｔｄ， ｉｎ ｃｏｌｌａｂｏｒａｔｉｏｎ ｗｉｔｈ Ｎｇｅｅ ＡｎｎＰｏｌｙｔｅｃｈｎｉｃ， ２００３． ３． （１６）
根据邵氏机构中文部已故经理蔡文玄在１９９０ 年接受新加坡口述历史博物馆的访问时说：邵氏兄弟的影片摄制厂，在开始的阶段定名为邵氏制片厂，后来邵氏机构决定拍摄马来语影片，有关制片厂即改称马来制片厂，厂址设在惹兰安拔士（ＪｌｎＡｍｐａｓ），目前原址已被改建成为住房。 （１８）Ｈｕｓｓｉｎ，Ｈａｍｚａｈ．Ａ Ｃｕｌｔｕｒａｌ Ｈｉｓｔｏｒｙ ｏｆ Ｍａｌａｙ Ｆｉｌｍｓ．第 ４ 届常年ＳＥＡＰＡＶＡＡ 会议报告，Ｋｕａｌａ Ｌｕｍｐｕｒ，１９９９．３． （１９）Ｗｈｉｔｅ，Ｔｉｍｏｔｈｙ Ｒ．Ｗｈｅｎ Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ ｗａｓ Ｓｏｕｔｈｅａｓｔ Ａｓｉａ’ｓ Ｈｏｌｌｙｗｏｏｄ，Ｔｈｅ Ａｒｔｓ，Ｉｓｓｕｅ ５，１９９７．２３． （２０）Ｌｉｍ， Ｋａｙ Ｔｏｎｇ． Ｃａｔｈａｙ： ５５ ｙｅａｒｓ ｏｆ Ｃｉｎｅｍａ． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ：Ｌａｎｄ－ｍａｒｋ Ｂｏｏｋｓ Ｐｔｅ Ｌｔｄ，１９９１．２１． （２１）Ｃｈｉｎ，Ｋｅｅ Ｏｎｎ．Ｍａｌａｙａ Ｕｐｓｉｄｅ Ｄｏｗｎ．Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ：Ｊｉｔｔｓ ＆ Ｃｏ，１９４６． １５１． （２２）中华电影制片厂的厂址设在芽龙２４巷（Ｇｅｙｌａｎｇ Ｌｏｒ ２４）。 （２３）这些职业艺人并没有任何从事电影摄制的经验，主要都是一些歌台舞榭的舞台艺人，他们有舞台演出经验，却从来没拍过影片，对于如何走位，如何迁就镜头没有实战经验。
（２４）唐奇声《本邦华语电影戏剧散记》，载《新加坡戏剧研究社成立纪念特刊》，新加坡戏剧研究社 １９６１ 年版，第 ７０ 页。 （２５）根据《南洋文摘》第１０ 卷第 １２ 期第８４０页中显示，徐焦明曾经创组一间电影公司名为“群岛影业公司”。厂址原设在裕廊区的丹绒芭莱，后来搬迁到武吉智马七英里半处，这间公司给当地电影业的最大贡献是为当地培养了不少马来导演。 （２６）朱绪《我与戏剧》，新加坡胜友书局 １９８７ 年９ 月版，第 １２６ 页。 （２７）《娱乐》（Ｔｈｅ Ａｍｕｓｅｍｅｎｔ） １９４６ 年 ７ 月 １３ 日，第 ６０ 期。 （２８）《闲新加坡华侨制片业》，载《星洲日报》１９４７ 年。 （２９）有关制片厂的拥有者，设厂及关闭日期，由于资料缺乏不得而知。 （３０）Ｃｈｉａ， Ｙｕｅｈ Ｊｅａｎ． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｄｉｒｅｃｔｏｒｙ． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ： ＳｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅＦｉｌｍ Ｃｏｍｍｉｓｓｉｏｎ， １９９９．１－２． （３１）
根据资料，英文姓名为Ｈｏ Ａｈ Ｌｕ， 何亚禄是根据英文音译的中文名字。 （３２）这间由何氏筹组的影业公司是在群岛影业公司（见注２５）的基础上建设而成，群岛影业公司在面对巨大亏损之后把厂址及摄影器材转租给何亚禄，何氏把公司改名为：猛虎电影出品厂（即丽玛影片公司）。 （３３）国泰克里斯影片公司的制片厂设在新加坡的东海岸路（Ｅａｓｔ Ｃｏａｓｔ Ｒｏａｄ）。 （３４）影片由必·埃斯·拉詹斯（Ｂ．Ｓ．Ｒａｊｈａｎｓ）执导。 （３５）
易水《大胆的尝试－为狮子城开拍典礼而作》，载《南洋文摘》第 １ 卷第６ 期，新加坡南洋文摘出版社 １９６１ 年 １ 月版，第 ６８ 页。 （３６）根据 Ｊａｎ Ｕｈｄｅ ａｎｄ Ｙｖｏｎｎｅ Ｎｇ Ｕｈｄｅ． Ｌａｔｅｎｔ Ｉｍａｇｅｓ： Ｆｉｌｍ ｉｎＳｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ． 第２８页中指出邵氏机构和国泰机构分别在１９６７年和１９７２年终止在当地的影片拍摄工作。
（３７）一间以销售中国百货商品为主要业务的商业机构，进入 ７０ 年代，机构的董事局开始对电影业产生浓厚的兴趣，曾摄制过影片，也从事播映影片业务，拥有本身的院线。
（３９）Ｋｏｅｋ， Ｃｙｎｔｈｉａ． Ａｎｎｕａｌ Ｒｅｐｏｒｔ ｏｆ ｔｈｅ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｃｅｎｓｅｒ’ｓ Ｏｆｆｉｃｅ １９５３．
Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ： Ｇｏｖｅｒｎｍｅｎｔ Ｐｒｉｎｔｉｎｇ Ｏｆｆｉｃｅ， １９５４．
（４０）Ｋｏｅｋ， Ｃｙｎｔｈｉａ． Ａｎｎｕａｌ Ｒｅｐｏｒｔ ｏｆ ｔｈｅ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｂｏａｒｄ ｏｆ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｃｅｎｓｅｒ’
ｓ Ｏｆｆｉｃｅ １９５４． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ： Ｇｏｖｅｒｎｍｅｎｔ Ｐｒｉｎｔｉｎｇ Ｏｆｆｉｃｅ， １９５５．
（４１）Ｊｏｈｎ， Ｌｅｎｔ． Ｔｈｅ Ａｓｉａ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｉｎｄｕｓｔｒｙ． Ｌｏｎｄｏｎ： Ｃｈｒｉｓｔｅｏｐｈｅｒ Ｈｅｌｍ，
版社１９７２ 年 ４ 月 １５ 日版，第 ４９ 页。
（４３）《李光耀回忆录１９６５ —２０００》，新加坡联合早报２０００ 年版，第１５－１６页。
（４５）Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ Ｆｉｌｍ， Ｖｉｄｅｏ ＆ Ｍｕｓｉｃ Ｉｎｄｕｓｔｒｉｅｓ． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ： ＥＤＢ． １９９２．ｐ３－４．在这本书中编者明确地指出新加坡西部的大士村（Ｔｕａｓ）将会发展成为新加坡拍摄影片的重要机制，这机制将定名为大士村电影城（Ｔｕａｓ Ｔｅｌｅｖｉｓｉｏｎ Ｗｏｒｌｄ）。在上述厂址内，有关当局将会建设不同主题的摄影棚，为不同题材的影片摄制服务。 （４６）在香港和台湾两地，这部影片的中文片名被译作《妖街皇后》。 参考书目： １．见ｈｔｔｐ：／／ｗｗｗ．ｓｈｏｗ．ｃｏｍ．ｓｇ／ｓｈａｗｓｔｏｒｙ／ｓｈａｗｓｔｏｒｙ．ｈｔｍ。 ２．Ｕｈｄｅ， Ｊａｎ ａｎｄ Ｙｖｏｎｎｅ Ｎｇ Ｕｈｄｅ． Ｌａｔｅｎｔ Ｉｍａｇｅｓ： Ｆｉｌｍ ｉｎＳｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ： Ｏｘｆｏｒｄ Ｕｎｉｖｅｒｓｉｔｙ Ｐｒｅｓｓ Ｐｔｅ Ｌｔｄ， ｉｎ ｃｏｌ－ｌａｂｏｒａｔｉｏｎ ｗｉｔｈ Ｎｇｅｅ Ａｎｎ Ｐｏｌｙｔｅｃｈｎｉｃ， ２００３． ３．Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ Ｆｉｌｍ， Ｖｉｄｅｏ ＆ Ｍｕｓｉｃ Ｉｎｄｕｓｔｒｉｅｓ．Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ：ＥＤＢ，１９９２． ４．Ｊｏｈｎ， Ｌｅｎｔ． Ｔｈｅ Ａｓｉａ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｉｎｄｕｓｔｒｙ． Ｌｏｎｄｏｎ： ＣｈｒｉｓｔｅｏｐｈｅｒＨｅｌｍ， １９９０． ５．Ｋｏｅｋ，Ｃｙｎｔｈｉａ． Ａｎｎｕａｌ Ｒｅｐｏｒｔ ｏｆ ｔｈｅ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｂｏａｒｄ ｏｆＦｉｌｍ Ｃｅｎｓｅｒ’ｓ Ｏｆｆｉｃｅ １９５４， Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ： Ｇｏｖｅｒｎｍｅｎｔ ＰｒｉｎｔｉｎｇＯｆｆｉｃｅ， １９５５． ６．Ｋｏｅｋ，Ｃｙｎｔｈｉａ． Ａｎｎｕａｌ Ｒｅｐｏｒｔ ｏｆ ｔｈｅ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｃｅｎｓｅｒ’ｓＯｆｆｉｃｅ １９５３． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ： Ｇｏｖｅｒｎｍｅｎｔ Ｐｒｉｎｔｉｎｇ Ｏｆｆｉｃｅ， １９５４． ７．Ｃｈｉａ， Ｙｕｅｈ Ｊｅａｎ． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｄｉｒｅｃｔｏｒｙ． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ：Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ Ｆｉｌｍ Ｃｏｍｍｉｓｓｉｏｎ． １９９９． ８．Ｗｈｉｔｅ， Ｔｉｍｏｔｈｙ Ｒ． Ｗｈｅｎ Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ ｗａｓ Ｓｏｕｔｈｅａｓｔ Ａｓｉａ’ ｓ Ｈｏｌｌｙｗｏｏｄ． Ｔｈｅ Ａｒｔｓ， Ｉｓｓｕｅ ５， １９９７． ９．Ｌｉｍ， Ｋａｙ Ｔｏｎｇ． Ｃａｔｈａｙ： ５５ ｙｅａｒｓ ｏｆ Ｃｉｎｅｍａ． Ｓｉｎｇａｐｏｒｅ：Ｌａｎｄｍａｒｋ Ｂｏｏｋｓ Ｐｔｅ Ｌｔｄ， １９９１． １ ０ ． 李镜心《新加坡戏剧研究社成立纪念特刊》，新加坡戏剧研究社 １ ９ ９ １ 年版。 １ １ ． 易水《马来亚华语电影问题》，新加坡南洋商报出版部 １９５９ 年 １１ 月版。 １２．朱绪《我与戏剧》，新加坡胜友书局，１９８７ 年 ９ 月版。 １ ３ ． 傅无闷等编著《南洋年鉴》， 新加坡南洋商报出版部 １９３９ 年版。 １４．《南洋文摘》１９７２ 年 ７ 月 ２０ 日，第 １３ 卷。 １ ５ ．《李光耀回忆录 １ ９ ６ ５ — ２ ０ ０ ０ 》，新加坡联合早报２０００ 年版。 １ ６ ． 新加坡国立大学中央图书馆，微型胶卷编号：ＺＲ０９２１３。 １ ７ ． 新加坡国立大学中央图书馆，微型胶卷编号：ＺＲ０５６５１。 １８． 金华《新加坡电影业的回顾》，《新加坡月刊》１９７２年第 ６ ４ 期。 （郑燿霆，２００１级博士，南京大学中文系戏剧影视专业，２１００９３）
Some former kampong open-air cinemas….
Lay Wah Cinema at Kampong Tengah
Remnants of Tiong Hwa Cinema at the Beauty World
Lam Kok Cinema at Kampong San Teng
Sin Wah Cinema at Bukit Timah Road 10 Milestone
(Photo credit: various internet sources)
Last week as I was strolling along the Balestier road area I recalled there were 3 cinemas that stood in the area, They were Hoover and President cinemas where now stands the Shaw Plaza which incidentally has a 6 screen Cineplex. Heard the Cineplex will be going for renovation soon. But I would like to ask if anyone has a photo or memory of the other cinema called Ruby which was located opposite side of the road. I recall watching the Jacky Chan movie The Young Master there after my work on my first job after my o levels. Certainly brings back nostalgic memories for me.
Google it, and there you will get the picture, it was run by Cathay Organization, now is Balestier Point.
Ruby Theatre 1970s
Noted Johnny. And thanks for the nice picture of Ruby. Yup now the image of the whole place is all coming back to me. You guys at Remember Singapore are fantastic.
Peking Theatre was an open-air theatre along MacPherson Road, opposite MacPherson Market, later known as Jackson Market.
The theatre was never located in Pipit Road
Premier Theater was on the 4th floor Orchard Towers which is now a Discotheque.
wow, what a memory lane 🙂 tks
The Palladium Theatre (double ‘Ls’, not Paladium as stated in the article) was open 22 Jan 1914, NOT in the 1920s as stated in the article. See http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb19140123-1.2.50
Read it with much pleasure. Brought back a lot of good memories. Thank you. Was wondering if it might be possible during the next update, the article cld include some of the familiar films that were screened at the better know cinemas.
I watched my first movie in panggung wayang (cinema) called MIlo in Woodlands sometime in 65-67. It was The Dirty Dozen starring Tele Savalas (then , was still donning a turf on his head).
It is an open air cinema and it costed us maybe 10-20 cents per ticket, unless my memory fails me.
i have good memories of sinwah theatre from the early 60’s
They missed out ‘BRIGHT CINEMA’ near Tai Seng, Upper Paya Lebar Road where Kapo Factory now stands.
They missed out Joo Chiat open air theather at Onan Road once upon a time.
Joo Chiat open air theather at Onan Road once upon a time is actually site at Joo Chiat Road . The ticketing counter and cinema entrance is facing Joo Chiat Road. It does not have roof , is open air .It is very small , the screen is also small , may be measured 3 metres diagonally , The cinema occupied the small narrow piece of land between the former Joo Chiat market and Changi Market. LILY is the name of this cinema. There is a frying chestnut stall outside the cinema . At present time , the service road to the multi storey carpark of Joo Chiat complex will walk us to the LILY cinema main entrance . This service road is beside AM hotel. The cinema main entrance is about 40 metres away from Joo Chiat Road. It is a place the serve its function of its time . Same like us , in order for some one later to remember us , we need to serve the function of our time , put it in plan , easy to understand english , we just do our duty or job properly, no cheating , no evading of responsibilty
Maybe this was later develop to proper cinema and was called Garrick and then Galaxy till it was torn down in the 80’s.
Galaxy Cinema (formerly Apollo/Garrick Theatre), Onan Road (1930s-1980s)
Located at the junction of Geylang Road and Onan Road, Galaxy Cinema was part of the The Galaxy, a movie-cum-shopping centre that largely served the Muslim community at Joo Chiat. Other than Malay films, it also screened Chinese movies with English and Malay subtitles added.
Galaxy Cinema was formerly known as Apollo Theatre in the 1930s. It was taken charge by Lim Chong Pang, son of Lim Nee Soon, who renamed it as Garrick Theatre. Before the Second World War, Garrick Theatre was one of the most prominent cinemas in Singapore.
It is now known as the Muslim Converts’ Association of Singapore.
The Cathay Cineplex in Handy Road, one of Singapore’s oldest cinemas, to close after June 26
17 June 2022
The Straits Times
The Cathay Cineplex in Handy Road, one of Singapore’s oldest cinemas, will cease operations from June 27 and taking over the space is a pop-up by independent cinema operator The Projector.
In a statement, media company mm2 Asia, which runs the Cathay Cineplexes chain in Singapore, said the closure of the iconic cinema, close to Dhoby Ghaut MRT station, is “part of the cost rationalisation process for its cinema operations”.
Mr Chang Long Jong, group chief executive for mm2 Asia, said: “The cinema’s closure was a business decision. Over the years, retail traffic demographics have changed. We have had to evaluate the commercial viability of operating two cinemas in the Orchard shopping belt within 1.5km of each other and within 300m of another multiplex.”
The company also operates the nine-screen Cathay Cineplex Cineleisure outlet at the Cathay Cineleisure building on Grange Road.
He added that it will be “business as usual” at the chain’s other outlets.
The Handy Road location has been in operation since 1939 and many Singaporeans have fond memories of watching movies there. It was Singapore’s first air-conditioned cinema and is housed in a landmark building that is today a protected national monument.
The cinema’s premises at Handy Road is owned by Cathay Organisation and The Straits Times has contacted it for comment. It is understood that the shops and restaurants elsewhere in the building are not affected by the cinema closure and will operate normally.
From August 23, the space previously used by The Cathay Cineplex will become the latest pop-up outlet operated by The Projector.
A statement from building owner Cathay Organisation said the space, to be named Projector X: Picturehouse, will be used for films, live performances, complete with a cocktail and craft beer bar.
The Projector also operates Projector X: Riverside, a pop-up cinema at Riverside Point on Merchant Road. Its main permanent premises are at Golden Mile Tower in Beach Road.
Ms Karen Tan, founder of The Projector, said in the statement that her team is “super stoked” to be at The Cathay, which she calls “an iconic grand dame with a storied past”.
The Projector pop-up is understood to be temporary, but there was no comment from The Projector or Cathay Organisation on the duration of the pop-up or the long-term plans for the space.
A spokesman for The Cathay told The Straits Times: “We are studying plans for The Cathay to undergo redevelopment works. Given the prime location of the mall and evolving shopper demographics, we believe that a possible revamp will unlock the greatest potential for the mall.”
The closure of the seven-screen Cathay cinema comes amid tough times for the exhibition business. The Covid-19 epidemic caused delays in the release of blockbusters while social-distancing rules reduced seating capacity to roughly 50 per cent.
Earlier this year, smaller chain Filmgarde Cineplexes announced the closures of two of its branches, at Bugis+ and Century Square.
With the easing of social distancing rules on April 26 this year, business has rebounded “almost to pre-Covid levels”, according to the mm2 Asia statement.
Mr Chang said that “the cinema exhibition business remains a key part of our Group’s overall business strategy. Business for the cinemas has picked up significantly since the relaxing of Covid-19 restrictions”.
The company is exploring innovations such as concepts for live performances and e-sports. More information will be released soon, he said.
mm2 acquired Cathay Cineplexes in Singapore in November 2017. The group now operates eight Cathay Cineplexes locations in Singapore. In Malaysia, it operates 12 locations under the mmCineplexes brand.
Mr Chang ended his comments by thanking cinema patrons, studio partners and suppliers for their support.
Screenwriter Michael Chiang, 66, who penned the comedy Army Daze (1996), said that the film premiered at The Cathay cinema, as did his 2015 film Our Sister Mambo, a film loosely based on the 1950s Hong Kong comedy classic.
Produced to mark Cathay Organisation’s 80th anniversary, Mambo features an end-credits dance sequence filmed at the building’s entrance.
“I am quite saddened, as the cinema holds great memories for me,” he said.
Moviegoers were also saddened by the news.
Ms Prachi Kale, 21, a university student who had studied at the neighbouring School of the Arts, said: “It’s an iconic cinema, so it’s definitely going to feel like something’s missing around the Orchard area when I go there.”
Madam Bernice Toh, 47, who works in the service industry, said: “When I was younger, it was a place I went to relax with my friends on my days off.”
While national serviceman Matthew Ng, 22, who recently caught sleeper hit Everything Everywhere All At Once there, said: “Catching a movie at The Cathay will always be a vibe I’ll remember.”
Recalled cinema at Bedok (Princess and Prince) were named as 公主 and 太子 not 王子。
You should do your research before making such statement. 太子戏院was located at Beach Road under Shaw.
If I am not it was Princess and Rajah in Bedok and Prince was at Beach Road, used to be Alhambra Cinemas.
Theater opposite Sungei Gedong Camp in the 70s…forgot the name. Used to book out and watch Lin Fung Jiao and Liu Wen Chen.
does any one have photo of joo chiat market
I would like to ask for high resolution digital copy and permission for single publication use of the Lido-Shaw House 1958 photo. I am writing book on Swan & Maclaren Architects- the midcentury period, and the design of Shaw is by Frye-Drew who worked (interiors) on Shell house with SM in the same period, can you get back to me. email@example.com